Types of Axioms
1. Axiom of reflexivity
Let A be a set of attributes, and B is a subset of A. If BâŠ†A then Aâ†’B. This property is Trivial property.
2. Axiom of augmentation
If Aâ†’B is true and Y is an attribute set, then AYâ†’BY is also true. Adding attributes to dependencies does not affect the fundamental dependencies. If Aâ†’B is true, ACâ†’BC is true for any C.
3. Axiom of transitivity
If Aâ†’B holds and Bâ†’C holds, then Aâ†’C also holds, similar to the transitive rule in Algebra. Functionally, Aâ†’B is referred to as A, which determines B. If Xâ†’Y and Yâ†’Z are true, Xâ†’Y is true.
Secondary Rules
1. Decomposition
If Aâ†’BC, then Aâ†’B and Aâ†’C
Proof:
Aâ†’BC (given)_______________ (i)
BCâ†’B (reflexivity)____________ (ii)
Aâ†’B (transitivity from i and ii)
2. Composition
If Aâ†’B and Câ†’D then ACâ†’BD
Proof
Aâ†’B_________(i)
Câ†’D_________(ii)
ACâ†’BC________(iii) (Augmentation of i and C)
ACâ†’B________(iv) Decomposition of iii)
ACâ†’AD_______(v) (Augmentation of ii and A)
ACâ†’D___________(vi) (Decomposition of v)
ACâ†’BD________ (Union iv and vi)
3. Union (Notation)
If Aâ†’B and Aâ†’C then Aâ†’BC
Proof
Aâ†’B________(i) (given)
Aâ†’C________(ii) (given)
Aâ†’AC_______(iii) (Augmentation of ii and A)
ACâ†’BC______(iv) (Augmentation of i and C)
Aâ†’BC________(transitivity of iii and ii)
4. Pseudo transitivity
If Aâ†’B and BCâ†’D then ACâ†’D
Proof
Aâ†’B__________(i) (Given)
BCâ†’D________(ii) (Given)
ACâ†’BC_______(iii) (Augmentation of i and C)
AC â†’D_________(Transitivity of iii and ii)
5. Selfdetermination
Aâ†’A for any given A.
This rule directly follows the Axiom of Reflexivity.
6. Extensivity
Extensivity is a particular case of augmentation where C=A
If Aâ†’B, then Aâ†’AB
In the sense that augmentation can be proven from extensivity and other axioms, extensivity can replace augmentation as an axiom.
Proof
ACâ†’A____(i)
Aâ†’B________(ii)
ACâ†’B________(iii) (Transitivity of i and ii)
ACâ†’ABC_______(iv) (Extensivity of iii)
ABCâ†’BC______(v) (Reflexivity)
ACâ†’BC (Transitivity of iv and v)
Armstrong Relation
An Armstrong relation is a relation that satisfies all of the functional dependencies in the closure F+ and only those dependencies, given a set of functional dependencies F. Unfortunately, for a given set of dependencies, the minimumsize Armstrong relation can have a size that is an exponential function of the number of attributes in the dependencies under consideration.
Why do the Sound and Complete axioms appear in the Armstrong axioms?
By sound, we mean that any dependency may be stated on a relation schema R given a set of functional dependencies F specified on a relation schema R, any dependency inferred from F using the Armstrong axioms primary rules holds in every relation state r of R that satisfies the dependencies in F.
By complete, we mean that repeatedly inferring dependencies using primary Armstrong axioms until no more dependencies can be inferred results in the complete set of all possible dependencies implied from F.
Functional Dependencies
A functional dependency is a constraint between two sets of attributes in a database relation in relational database theory. A functional dependency, in other terms, is a constraint between two qualities in a relation.
If attribute A functionally determines attribute B, it is written as AB.

Trivial Functional Dependency: A functional dependency AB is trivial only when B is a subset of A.
Example:
ABCâ†’A
ABâ†’B
ABCâ†’ABC

Non Trivial Functional Dependency: AB is a functional dependency when B is not a subset of A.
It is called completely nontrivial when AB is NULL.
 Semi NonTrivial Functional Dependency: AB is nontrivial when AB is not NULL.
Advantages of Using Armstrongâ€™s Axioms in Functional Dependency
The advantages of using Armstrongâ€™s Axioms in Functional Dependency are:

Logical Deduction: Armstrongâ€™s Axioms provide a systematic and logical approach to deducing new functional dependencies from given sets of functional dependencies. This helps in understanding the relationships between attributes in a database.

Normalization: By applying Armstrongâ€™s Axioms, databases can be normalized efficiently, reducing redundancy and improving data integrity. This leads to better organization and management of data, enhancing overall database performance.

Query Optimization: Understanding functional dependencies using Armstrongâ€™s Axioms can aid in query optimization by allowing for the creation of efficient indexes and data structures, leading to faster query execution times.

Data Integrity: By identifying and enforcing functional dependencies, Armstrongâ€™s Axioms help maintain data integrity by ensuring that updates, inserts, and deletes adhere to the defined constraints, thereby minimizing inconsistencies in the database.
Disadvantages of Using Armstrongâ€™s Axioms in Functional Dependency
The disadvantages of using Armstrongâ€™s Axioms in Functional Dependency are:

Complexity: Understanding and applying Armstrongâ€™s Axioms can be challenging, especially for complex databases with numerous attributes and dependencies. This complexity may lead to errors in identifying and implementing functional dependencies.

Computational Overhead: The process of deriving all possible functional dependencies using Armstrongâ€™s Axioms can be computationally intensive, especially for large databases. This may result in increased processing time and resource utilization.

Limited Scope: Armstrongâ€™s Axioms are primarily focused on determining functional dependencies based on given sets of attributes. However, they may not address all aspects of database design and optimization, such as performance tuning and data security.

Dependency Maintenance: As databases evolve over time, maintaining and updating functional dependencies using Armstrongâ€™s Axioms can become cumbersome, especially when dealing with frequent schema changes or complex relationships between attributes.
Must Recommended Topic, Schema in DBMS
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the primary rules of Armstrong Axioms?
Following are the primary rules of Armstrong Axioms:
1. Reflexivity
2. Augmentation
3. Transitivity
We have already covered the Axioms in detail in the above article.
What are Armstrong's axioms in DBMS?
Armstrong's axioms are a set of rules used to derive functional dependencies in database management systems, helping to ensure data integrity and normalization.
What is the Armstrong theorem in DBMS?
The Armstrong theorem states that if a functional dependency Xâ†’Y holds in a relation, then it also implies other functional dependencies derivable from Armstrong's axioms.
How do you prove Union Armstrong's axioms?
To prove Union Armstrong's axioms, you typically apply the axioms systematically to the given set of functional dependencies, deriving new dependencies until no additional ones can be deduced.
Conclusion
In the article, we discussed functional dependencies briefly and what Armstrong Axioms are. We saw various axioms included in Armstrong Axioms. And then, we looked into different secondary rules based on the axioms and their proofs.
Recommended Reading  Canonical Cover In DBMS, Lock based protocol in DBMS
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