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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
ASP.NET Interview Questions
2.1.
1. What is ASP.NET?
2.2.
2. What is the ASP.NET MVC framework?
2.3.
3. Which would be the correct framework to be used ASP.NET MVC or ASP.NET Web API?
2.4.
4. What is Server control?
2.5.
5. What is Razor in ASP.NET?
2.6.
6. What is the REST architecture?
2.7.
7. What are the different types of Authentication in ASP.NET?
2.8.
8. What is Caching and its different types?
2.9.
9. What is Query String in ASP? And what are its advantages and disadvantages?
2.10.
10. What does the method ‘Finalize’ do in ASP.NET?
2.11.
11. What are the steps in the ASP.NET page life cycle?
2.12.
12. What is the web.config file?
2.13.
13. Which compiler is used in ASP.NET?
2.14.
14. ASP.NET is open-source. Explain?
2.15.
15. Explain the Global.asax file?
2.16.
16. What all types of Server controls are supported by ASP.NET?
2.17.
17. What does “PostBack” mean in ASP.NET?
2.18.
18. Explain the difference between Web.config and Machine.config file?
2.19.
19. Write a step for Request Flow in ASP.NET MVC framework?
2.20.
20. Explain the various modes for the Session state in ASP.NET? 
2.21.
21. Write down different return types of a controller action method?
2.22.
22. How to maintain sessions in MVC?
2.23.
23. What is NuGet package manager?
2.24.
24. What is the use of the Program class?
2.25.
25. What is the use of the Startup class?
2.26.
26. What is the use of the wwwroot folder?
2.27.
27. What is the use of the appsettings.json file?
2.28.
28. What is IIS?
2.29.
29. What is dependency injection?
2.30.
30.How does dependency injection works in ASP.NET Core?
2.31.
31. What is a cookie?
2.32.
32. What is the difference between Hyperlink and LinkButton?
2.33.
33. What are navigation controls?
2.34.
34. What are Globalization and Localization?
2.35.
35. What is a Resource File?
2.36.
36. What are Local Resources and Global Resources?
2.37.
37. What is Neutral Culture, Culture, and Language?
2.38.
38. What are the built-in objects in ASP.NET?
2.39.
39. What do you mean by Role-based security?
2.40.
40. What is event bubbling?
2.41.
41. What is the command used to verify the presence of ASP.NET in the system?
2.42.
42. What are the core sections of the ASP.NET App page?
2.43.
43. What are page directives in ASP.NET App?
2.44.
44. What is the response object in ASP.NET App?
3.
Key Takeaways
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

ASP.NET Interview Questions

Source: Link

Introduction

Active Server Pages (ASP) and Active Server Pages (ASP.NET) are server-side technologies for displaying interactive web pages.

ASP.NET offers developers a wide range of options in a large, diverse ecosystem of libraries and tools. Developers can also design custom libraries that can be shared with any .Net platform application.

ASP.NET is a web development platform that includes a programming paradigm, a comprehensive software infrastructure, and a number of services for developing sophisticated web applications for both PCs and mobile devices.

ASP.NET is built on top of the HTTP protocol, and it makes use of HTTP commands and policies to establish bidirectional communication and cooperation between the browser and the server.
The Microsoft.Net platform includes ASP.NET. ASP.NET applications are compiled code built with the .Net framework's extensible and reusable components and classes. These programmes can access the entire .Net framework class hierarchy.
In this blog, we will discuss the standard ASP.NET interview questions and their answers.

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ASP.NET Interview Questions

1. What is ASP.NET?

The ASP.NET is a component of the .NET Framework that may be used to build dynamic websites, online applications, and web services. It's a server-side technology that works with any .NET compatible languages, such as C#, VB.NET, and J#, and compiles them to Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL). ASP.NET makes it simple to create a fast and interactive application using server controls.

ASP.NET has the following features: 

  • It builds websites using the C# and VB.NET programming languages.
  • It allows us to keep the HTML layout and server-side code separate.
  • It enables us to qualify the same class name in a separate namespace.
  • The pages in ASP.NET are compiled rather than interpreted.
  • ASP.NET is a request processing engine. It receives an incoming request and routes it through its internal pipeline to an endpoint to which a developer may attach code to process it.

2. What is the ASP.NET MVC framework?

ASP.NET MVC is a lightweight web application framework with a lot of tested features. Model, View, and Controller are the three types of components supported by ASP.NET.

  • The Model component relates to all or any of the data-related logic with which the user interacts. This will represent the data being transmitted between the View and Controller components, as well as any other business logic-related data. A Customer object, for example, will retrieve customer information from a database, change it, and either update or output the data back to the database.
  • The View component is used for all of the appliance's user interface logic. For example, the Customer view will have all of the UI components that the final user interacts with, such as text boxes, dropdowns, and so on.
  • Controllers serve as a link between the Model and Consider components, processing all business logic and incoming requests, manipulating data with the Model component, and interacting with Views to render the final output. The Customer controller, for example, will handle all interactions and inputs from the Customer View and use the Customer Model to update the database. The Customer data will be viewed by an analogous controller.

3. Which would be the correct framework to be used ASP.NET MVC or ASP.NET Web API?

ASP.Net MVC is used to create online applications that return both the view and the data, whereas Asp.Net Web API is used to create all HTTP services in a simple and basic approach that only returns data, not the view.

Web API allows you to create RESTful services using the.NET Framework, and it also includes features like content negotiation and self-facilitating that aren't available in MVC.

Web API also deals with returning information that is particularly intended, such as JSON, XML, or another, based on the Accept header in the request, and you don't have to worry about it. Using Json Result, MVC simply returns information in JSON format.

4. What is Server control?

Server Controls are capabilities in ASP.NET that allow you to manipulate the values of controls on the server side. This is extremely useful when creating verifying and dynamically generated web forms.

5. What is Razor in ASP.NET?

Razor in ASP.NET provides the syntax for creating dynamic web pages using C# and HTML. For SPAs, ASP.NET may be combined with JS (JavaScript) and contains frameworks such as React and Angular (Single Page Application.)

6. What is the REST architecture?

REST is the acronym for REpresentational State Transfer. REST is an architectural approach that follows six restrictions specified by Roy Fielding in 2000, rather than a rigorous standard. Uniform Interface, Client-Server, Stateless, Cacheable, Layered System, and Code on Demand are the limitations. REST is not limited to XML, and it is up to the implementer to decide which Media-Type to use, such as XML, JSON, or plain-text. Furthermore, REST can make use of the SOAP protocol, but SOAP cannot make use of REST. REST is simple to set up and uses less bandwidth, making it ideal for mobile devices.

RESTful API Architectural Constraints: The following are six architectural restrictions that any web service must meet:

  • Stateless 
  • Cacheable 
  • Client-Server 
  • Layered System 
  • Code on Demand with a Uniform Interface

7. What are the different types of Authentication in ASP.NET?

Authentication is the process of determining a user's identity based on their credentials. Users' credentials are often in the form of a user ID and password, and we check them against a database or equivalent alternative to see if they exist. If they do, the user is a valid candidate for the next step - authorisation. In ASP.NET, there are several types of authentication to choose from, including:

  • Form Authentication
  • Passport Authentication
  • Windows Authentication
  • Custom Authentication

8. What is Caching and its different types?

The caching function in Asp.Net allows you to save or cache Web Page output. This technique is used to save time by not having to recreate the same data. In ASP.NET, there are three different methods of caching:

  • Caching of page output
  • Caching of page fragments
  • Caching of data

If the user requests the same data or information repeatedly, caching improves performance.

  • Caching of page output: It's done by adding an OutputCache directive to the top of the.aspx page during the design phase.
  • The Cache object implements data caching, which is useful for rapid retrieval of application data.
  • Page Fragment Caching: This technique caches a user control to store a portion of a Web form response in memory.

9. What is Query String in ASP? And what are its advantages and disadvantages?

A QueryString is a string of characters entered into a web browser on a computer. It comes in handy when we need to move a value from one page to another. We can't use Request if we're sending a significant amount of data. Since it only supports 255 characters, it's called QueryString. To separate numerous query strings, we utilise the '&' special character. The called ASPX page will have access to any query string that was available to the calling ASPX page.

10. What does the method ‘Finalize’ do in ASP.NET?

Before the current object is destroyed, the Finalize technique is used to run a cleanup procedure on unmanaged resources owned by the current object. The strategy is guaranteed, and it is then available only through this class or a derived class.

11. What are the steps in the ASP.NET page life cycle?

  • Starting of page life cycle
  • Page request
  • Page Load
  • Page initialization
  • Postback event handling
  • Validation
  • Unload
  • Page rendering

12. What is the web.config file?

The configuration file (web.config) is used to manage the various settings that distinguish a website. The settings are stored in XML files which are different from the code of your programme. This allows you to freely configure settings from your code. This file is located in the root directory of the application.

13. Which compiler is used in ASP.NET?

To put together an ASP.NET programme, the Roslyn compiler was used by the NET framework.

14. ASP.NET is open-source. Explain?

On the .NET (dotNET) platform, ASP.NET is an open-source web framework for developing web applications. Microsoft released version 1.0 in 2002, allowing users to create dynamic online applications, services, and websites. The framework is built to interact with the HTTP convention, which is the most widely used protocol for web-based applications. ASP.NET is the next version to the ASP (Active Server Pages) technology, and it represents a substantial advancement in terms of adaptability and capability. It's an add-on to the .NET framework that includes additional tools and libraries for developing web-based apps and websites. ASP.NET Core is the cross-plate form version of ASP.NET, which was released in 2016. The ASP.NET framework is still being upgraded.

15. Explain the Global.asax file?

Global.asax is a file present in the application root directory that is optional. Session Start, Session End, Application Start, Application End and other application events are handled in this file. The ASP.NET application file is another name for it. Global.asax contains a class which represents your entire application. This file is compiled at runtime into a dynamically generated .NET class based on the HTTP Application base class. This file can be sent as an assembly to an ASP.NET application's bin catalogue. The Global.asax record is built in such a way that if a user requests the document, it will be rejected. External users are unable to download or view the code contained within it.

16. What all types of Server controls are supported by ASP.NET?

In ASP.NET, there are four primary types of server-side controls:

  • Web Server controls
  • HTML server controls
  • Validation controls
  • User controls

17. What does “PostBack” mean in ASP.NET?

The process of presenting an ASP.NET page to the server for processing is known as a PostBack. If the page's credentials need to be validated against other sources (for example, utilising a database to confirm the username and password), PostBack is used. This is something that a client machine will not be able to do, hence these details must be 'uploaded back' on the server. As a result, we say that a postback event occurs on the client side but is handled by code in a server-side of the webpage.

18. Explain the difference between Web.config and Machine.config file?

The following are some important differences between Web.config and Machine.config:

Web.config Machine.config
Web.config, on the other hand, is a file that stores configuration information in XML format and is used to apply local settings to a website. The machine.config record is your framework's master configuration document, containing several default options.
the values in the Web.config file only apply to that particular web application. The parameters in the Machine.config file apply to all asp.net apps on your server
Each web application has its own web.config file, Web.config files can also be found in directories within a web application. each.NET Framework form has only one machine.config file.
Web.config documents contain application-specific information, such as database connection strings. Machine.config files contain shared values shared by multiple programmes on the server.
If you make changes to the web.config, the web application will load them immediately. If you make changes to the machine.config, you must restart the application.
Web.config is created automatically when you create an ASP.Net web application project. When you install Visual Studio.Net, the machine.config document is created automatically and is located in the c:windowsmicrosoft.netframeworkversionconfig folder.
Web.config is a configuration file for a specific application. Machine.config is the design configuration file for all IIS apps.

 

19. Write a step for Request Flow in ASP.NET MVC framework?

In ASP.NET MVC, the Request Flow sequence is as follows:

The initial request is received in this step. After that, route objects are added to the Route table object in the Global.asax file.

  • Routing: The second phase involves routing. The URL Routing Module is used to handle the request after the application receives it from the client. The Route Table is a table that directs URLs to handlers. A routing system coordinates with a system that compares the request's URL to the URL patterns stored in the Route Table. When a match is detected in the pattern, the Routing engine sends the request to the corresponding IRouteHandler. It returns a 404 HTTP status if the related URL is not found in the routing database.
  • MVC Handler: A RouteHandler that determines the HTTP handler that will serve the request based on the RequestContext supplied.
  • Controller: The controller decides which action method will be used in this stage.
  • ActionInvoker will identify which Action method needs to be executed after the controller is instantiated. To pick an action method, utilise the ActionNameSelectorAttribute and ActionMethodSelectorAttribute methods. The action method takes user input, executes the result, and returns a result type that may be viewed.

20. Explain the various modes for the Session state in ASP.NET? 

  • Sessions are saved on a web server within the application's process. It might be aspnet wp.exe or w3wp.exe, depending on the IIS version used.
  • StateServer: The State Server windows administration service is used to save sessions.
  • SQLServer: The information from sessions is stored in the SQL Server database.
  • A custom session state provider is in charge of all session states.

21. Write down different return types of a controller action method?

  • View Result
  • Javascript Result
  • Redirect Result
  • JSON Result
  • Content Result

22. How to maintain sessions in MVC?

In MVC, we can keep sessions in three different ways:

  • Temporary data: TempData in ASP.NET MVC is basically a dictionary object derived from TempDataDictionary. 
  • Viewdata: ViewData maintains data when you move from controller to view. It is also a dictionary object and derived from ViewDataDictionary.
  • View bag: The ViewBag is a dynamic type property of ControllerBase class which is the base class of all the controllers.

23. What is NuGet package manager?

Software developers don't write all of their programming from the ground up. They rely on code libraries created by other programmers. Any modern development platform must include a means for developers to obtain and use pre-built libraries, commonly referred to as packages. The JavaScript ecosystem, for example, includes NPM (Node Package Manager), which allows developers to identify and use libraries created by other JavaScript developers.

NuGet is a package manager for .NET framework. It was created by Microsoft to give users access to thousands of packages created by .NET developers. It also allows you to share the code you've written with others.

A typical ASP.NET web application relies on a large number of open source NuGet packages to run. Consider the case of Newtonsoft. Json is a widely used library for working with JSON data.

24. What is the use of the Program class?

Our application's entry point is the Program.cs class. An ASP.NET programme begins with a static void Main() function, just like a console application.

This class sets up the web server that will handle the requests. The host is in charge of the application's initialization and lifespan management, as well as graceful shutdown.

The host must set up a server and a request processing pipeline at the very least. Logging, configuration, and dependency injection can all be set up by the host.

25. What is the use of the Startup class?

This class is responsible for two key components of your application: service registration and the middleware pipeline.

Services are C# classes that provide additional functionality to your application and are utilised by both the framework and your application. Logging, database, and other similar applications are examples. These services must be registered in order to be invoked while your app is running and when it is required.

The middleware pipeline is the order in which an HTTP request is processed by your application

ConfigureServices() and Configure() are two methods in the Startup class(). The first approach, as its name implies, registers all of the services that the application requires. The middleware pipeline is configured using the second technique.

26. What is the use of the wwwroot folder?

Our web application's static files and built assets, such as JavaScript, CSS, and pictures, are stored under the wwwroot folder. The only folder in the entire project that is visible to the browser as it is wwwroot.

27. What is the use of the appsettings.json file?

Appsettings.json is a file that holds all of the application's settings, allowing you to customise its functionality.

A sample appsettings.json file is shown below.

{
 "Logging": {
     "LogLevel": {
          "Default": "Information",
    "Microsoft": "Warning",
    "Microsoft.Hosting.Lifetime": "Information"
      }
  },
"ConnectionStrings": {
    "AppConnection": ""
},
"AWS": {
  "Profile": "local-test-profile",
  "Region": "us-west-2"
},
"AllowedHosts": "*"
}

28. What is IIS?

Internet Information Services (IIS) is an acronym for Internet Information Services. Microsoft has created a strong web server. IIS is also used as a load balancer, distributing incoming HTTP requests to other application servers for increased dependability and scalability.

It can also operate as a reverse proxy, accepting a client's request, forwarding it to an application server, and returning the response to the client. Your application's security, dependability, and performance are all enhanced by using a reverse proxy.

IIS has the drawback of only running on Windows. It is, nevertheless, highly configurable. You can tailor it to your application's exact requirements.

29. What is dependency injection?

Dependency injection is a design pattern that aids in the creation of loosely linked software. ASP.NET makes considerable use of this pattern.

Dependency injection refers to the practise of giving the objects that an object requires (its dependencies) in the function Object() { [native code] } of that object rather than requiring the object to construct them.

Dependency injection lowers and, in many cases, eliminates needless dependencies between objects that don't need to communicate with one another. It also aids testing by mimicking or stumping out dependencies during execution.

30.How does dependency injection works in ASP.NET Core?

The built-in IoC (Inversion-of-Control) container in ASP.NET Core injects instances of dependency classes. The IServiceProvider interface, which enables function Object() { [native code] } injection, represents this container.

Services are the types (classes) that the container manages. We must first register our services with the IoC container in the Startup class in order for the IoC container to automatically inject them.

Framework and application services are the two types of services supported by ASP.NET Core. ILoggerFactory, IApplicationBuilder, IHostingEnvironment, and other core services are part of the ASP.NET Core framework. A developer, on the other hand, creates application services (custom types or classes) particularly for the app.

31. What is a cookie?

The cookie is a little piece of data that is stored in the browser and persists between requests and even sessions. Cookies are little text files that contain information about the user. The cookies are stored on the user's computer by the browser. The cookies are usually stored as key-value pairs in most browsers.

Write a cookie in ASP.NET Core:

Response.Cookies.Append(key, value);

Delete a cookie in ASP.NET Core:

Response.Cookies.Delete(somekey);

32. What is the difference between Hyperlink and LinkButton?

The Hyperlink control lacks the Click and Command events, whereas the LinkButton control does, and these events can be handled in the Web page's code-behind file.

33. What are navigation controls?

Navigation controls make it simple to navigate through a Web application. These controls organise all of the links in a hierarchical or drop-down structure, making navigation in a Web application much easier.

34. What are Globalization and Localization?

The process of designing and building application that works across many cultures or geographies is known as globalisation. To put it simpler way, globalisation is the process of designing and developing an application so that it may be used by people from many cultural backgrounds. Your application will be ready for foreign markets thanks to globalisation. 

  • This procedure entails determining the culture and location that the application must support.
  • Creating features that cater to those cultures and locations.
  • Writing code that works with all supported cultures and locations equally well.
  • Localization is the process of adapting your programme to a specific culture or location. To put it another way, localization is the process of modifying your application so that it operates according to the existing culture or locality. Localization is the process of translating your application's user interface into the current culture or locale.

35. What is a Resource File?

Resource files are provided by ASP.NET to implement globalisation and localization. The resource file has the extension resx and is an XML file. The resx file contains a key-value pair for each resource. We will create a separate resource file for each culture that your programme has to support. WebResources.en.resx, for example, is a resource file for the English language, while WebResources.hi.resx is a resource file for Hindi.

36. What are Local Resources and Global Resources?

The following are the two types of resource files:

Local Resources: Local resources are specific to a particular web page and are used to provide different language versions of the same web page. These are kept in the App LocalResources directory.

Global Resources: Global resources are shared by all web pages and can be accessed from anywhere in the web application. The App GlobalResources folder contains these files.

37. What is Neutral Culture, Culture, and Language?

A culture which is associated with a language but not with a country or place is known as a neutral culture. For instance, "en" stands for English and "in" stands for Hindi. Language and the country or region make up culture. It is identified by a culture code, which consists of two lowercase letters indicating the language and two uppercase letters indicating the country or location, such as en-US for English in the United States, en-GB for the United Kingdom, and so on. Any spoken language, such as English (en), Hindi (hi), and German (de), is considered a language.

38. What are the built-in objects in ASP.NET?

The following are the major built-in objects:

  • Application
  • Session
  • Context
  • Request
  • Response
  • Server
  • Trace

39. What do you mean by Role-based security?

Almost every business employs role-based security, which allocates certain privileges to each role.

  • A role is allocated to each user from the list.
  • Role-based privileges limit a user's actions on the system and ensure that a user can only do what he is authorised to do.

40. What is event bubbling?

Event bubbling occurs when a child control sends events to the parent. Data Grid, Data List, and Repeater are server controls that can include other child controls.

41. What is the command used to verify the presence of ASP.NET in the system?

We use the "dotnet" command to check the presence of ASP.NET in the system and to check its version.

42. What are the core sections of the ASP.NET App page?

A server-side file with the.aspx extension is also known as an ASP.NET page. It's modular in design and may be broken down into the following sections:

  • Directives for the Pages
  • Page Layout for the Code Section

43. What are page directives in ASP.NET App?

The page directives create the conditions in which the page will operate. The @Page directive is used by the ASP.NET page parser and compiler to declare page-specific characteristics. Page directives define how a page should be processed and what assumptions should be made about it.

44. What is the response object in ASP.NET App?

In ASP.Net App, the Response object is used to communicate data back to the user. The ASP.net specific code is added using the <% and %> markers.

Click on the following link to read further: Javascript Interview Questions and Answers

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Key Takeaways

In this article, we learned about the most crucial questions that are asked in an ASP.NET interview. We learned the overall concept of the ASP.NET framework and ASP.NET interview questions. These ASP.NET interview questions will be very helpful in your upcoming interview.

Recommended Readings:

Check out Microsoft Interview Experience to learn about their hiring process.

Apart from this, you can also expand your knowledge by referring to these articles on Features Of ASP Net and ASP Full Form.

For more information about backend development, get into the entire Backend web development course.

Happy Learning!

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