1.
Introduction
2.
Understanding Boundary Value Analysis
2.1.
Practical Implementation
2.2.
Code in C
3.
4.
4.1.
Code in C
4.2.
Designing Boundary Value Test Cases
4.3.
Code in C
4.4.
Future Prospects
5.
5.1.
Q1. What is meant by boundary value analysis?
5.2.
Q2. What is the boundary value?
5.3.
Q3. What is 3 point boundary value analysis?
6.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
Medium

# Boundary Value Analysis

Sinki Kumari
0 upvote

## Introduction

Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) is a paramount testing technique employed to unveil errors at the boundaries of input domain rather than finding those present in the center. It's a crucial part of software testing that ensures the application's robustness and reliability.

## Understanding Boundary Value Analysis

Boundary Value Analysis focuses on the values at the boundaries of input ranges, as these points are prone to errors. For instance, if a function is supposed to accept an input range of 1 to 100, the boundary values would be 0, 1, 100, and 101.

### Practical Implementation

Let's consider a simple program that accepts an age range between 18 and 60. The boundary values here would be 17, 18, 60, and 61.

• Code in C

### Code in C

``#include <stdio.h>int main() {    int age;    printf("Enter your age: ");    scanf("%d", &age);        if (age >= 18 && age <= 60) {        printf("Valid age.\n");    } else {        printf("Invalid age.\n");    }        return 0;}``

Run the program with boundary values to observe the behavior.

Output

## Advantages of Boundary Value Analysis

• Efficiency: BVA reduces the number of test cases, saving time and resources while maintaining test coverage.

• Effectiveness: It’s highly effective in identifying errors at the boundaries.

Example: In our age validation program, applying BVA would immediately catch the issue if the conditions were wrongly implemented.

Also see,  Traceability Matrix

## Disadvantages of Boundary Value Analysis

• Limited Coverage: BVA might miss out on identifying errors that occur within the input range.

• Dependence on Precise Requirements: The effectiveness of BVA is significantly dependent on the clarity and precision of the requirements specified.

Example: If the age range specification was vague, applying BVA would be challenging and less effective.

Delving Deeper: Edge Cases:

Consider a program that calculates discounts based on the quantity of items purchased. The discount kicks in when a customer purchases more than 20 items. A potential edge case would be exactly at 20 items where the discount should not apply.

• Code in C

### Code in C

``#include <stdio.h>int main() {    int quantity;    float discount = 0.0;    printf("Enter quantity: ");    scanf("%d", &quantity);        if (quantity > 20) {        discount = 0.05;    }        printf("Discount: %.2f%%\n", discount * 100);        return 0;}``

Output

### Designing Boundary Value Test Cases

Designing test cases based on BVA is straightforward yet impactful. Let's consider a program that validates age with an acceptable range of 18 to 60. The boundary values are 17, 18, 60, and 61.

• Code in C

### Code in C

``#include <stdio.h>int main() {    int age;    printf("Enter your age: ");    scanf("%d", &age);        if (age >= 18 && age <= 60) {        printf("Valid age.\n");    } else {        printf("Invalid age.\n");    }        return 0;}``

Output

Executing test cases with these boundary values will ensure the robustness of the validation logic.

### Future Prospects

With the advent of automated testing tools, integrating Boundary Value Analysis within the testing framework will become more streamlined, allowing for quicker identification of boundary-related errors.

### Q1. What is meant by boundary value analysis?

Boundary value analysis is a software testing technique that focuses on testing the boundaries of input ranges. It involves checking the behavior of a program at the minimum, maximum, and just outside the edge of input values to identify potential errors.

### Q2. What is the boundary value?

A boundary value in software testing refers to the limits or edges of the input range that a system or component is designed to accept. Testing these values—such as minimum, maximum, just inside, and just outside—helps identify potential edge case errors.

### Q3. What is 3 point boundary value analysis?

Three-point boundary value analysis is a software testing technique where each boundary condition is tested using three values: the boundary value itself, a value just below the boundary, and a value just above it. This approach helps in uncovering edge case bugs.

## Conclusion

Boundary Value Analysis is an indispensable asset in a tester's toolkit, ensuring that the software behaves correctly at the boundary conditions. Its ability to identify errors with fewer test cases while maintaining a high level of effectiveness makes it a go-to technique for many testing scenarios. As testing frameworks evolve, incorporating BVA will continue to be a pivotal part of ensuring software reliability and robustness, ultimately leading to the development of high-quality software products.

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