Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X
Table of contents
Circuit switching
Efficiency in Circuit Switching
Delay in Circuit Switching
Advantages of Circuit Switching
Disadvantages of Circuit Switching
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the other methods of switching?
What are the FDM and TDM?
How can we calculate the transmission rate and time?
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Circuit Switching

Author Harsh Goyal
0 upvote
Master Python: Predicting weather forecasts
Ashwin Goyal
Product Manager @
Computer Networks


This blog will mainly discuss circuit switching in computer networking. Before jumping on the circuit switching, let’s first understand what switching is,

  • Switching is the process of creating a network for one-to-one communication with the help of switches. The switches are the series of interlocked nodes in the switched network. 
  • Switching can happen at several layers of the TCP/IP protocol suite, which are at the physical layer, data-link layer, and network layer. 

Now, you must be eager to know what is circuit switching?

Circuit switching is the connection-oriented network switching method that is commonly used these days. Let’s discuss circuit switching in more detail.

(Also see, Switching Models)

Circuit switching

  • Circuit switching is one of the methods of switching.
  • Circuit switching is the one method that is commonly used today.
  • It is the dedicated connection established between the sender and receiver.
  • The transmission of messages in circuit switching is done from the dedicated route, which has been established between the source and the destination.
  • Each connection uses only one dedicated channel on each link.
  • FDM and TDM are used to divide each link into ‘N’ channels.
  • There are three phases of circuit switching connection which are as follows:
    • Establishment of Circuit: Intermediate switching centers are used to establish a dedicated path from source to destination. The establishment is checked by transmitting communication signal requests and acknowledgments by sender and receiver.
    • Data Transfer: Circuits are used to send data and voice from source to destination. The connection will exist till the end parties are communicating with each other.
    • Circuit Disconnection: After the transfer of data, we need to disconnect the connection. This is initiated by any one of the users. The intermediate links are removed from the sender to the receiver.
Circuit Switching

Source: myreadingroom

Efficiency in Circuit Switching

  • Circuit switching is not as efficient when compared with the other two methods of switching because resources are allocated during the entire duration of the connection.
  • No other connections can use these resources.

Delay in Circuit Switching

  • The delay is minimal in circuit switching despite the low efficiency.
  • There is no delay in the transfer of data at each switch.
  • Total delay = setup delay + data transfer delay + disconnection delay
Circuit Switching Delay

source:- datacommandnet

Must Read Subnetting in Computer Networks

Advantages of Circuit Switching

  • Circuit switching is beneficial in the long continuous transmission of data.
  • We receive a steady rate of data communication due to the dedicated path in circuit switching.
  • There are no intermediate delays after the establishment of the circuit.
  • Fixed bandwidth is used in circuit switching.
  • There is no waiting time at switches.

Disadvantages of Circuit Switching

  • The requirement for bandwidth is high.
  • The establishment of a connection requires a huge amount of time.
  • As the resources can’t be reused again, therefore, the system resources are underutilized.
  • Circuit switching is more expensive.
  • No other data can be transmitted even if the channel is free due to the dedicated end-to-end connection.

Must Read Stop and Wait Protocol.

Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the other methods of switching?

The other methods of switching are as follows:
→ Message Switching
→ Packet Switching

What are the FDM and TDM?

FDM refers to Frequency Division Multiplexing, and TDM refers to Time Division Multiplexing. These both are used to send multiple data signals combined for simultaneous transmission.

How can we calculate the transmission rate and time?

We can calculate the transmission rate as well as the transmission time by the use of the following formula: 
→ Transmission Rate:- Link Rate  /  Number of slots
→ Transmission Time:- Size of the file / Transmission Rate


In this article, we discussed what switching is and what is circuit switching.

Recommended Readings:


Do check out The Interview guide for Product Based Companies as well as some of the Popular Interview Problems from Top companies like Amazon, Adobe, Google, etc. on Coding Ninjas Studio.

Also check out some of the Guided Paths on topics such as Data Structure and Algorithms, Competitive Programming, Operating Systems, Computer Networks, etc. as well as some Contests, Test Series, Interview Bundles, and some Interview Experiences curated by top Industry Experts only on Coding Ninjas Studio.

Previous article
Message Switching in Computer Networks
Next article
Difference between Circuit Switching and Packet Switching
Live masterclass