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Table of contents
Important Components of the Operating System
Process Management
File Management
Network Management
Main Memory Management
Secondary Storage Management
I/O Device Management
Security Management
Command Interpreter System
Frequently Asked Questions
What is an operating system?
List some types of the operating system?
What are the 8 components of operating system?
What are the 5 operating system?
Last Updated: Apr 15, 2024

Components of Operating System

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Anubhav Sinha
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25 Jun, 2024 @ 01:30 PM


An Operating System is a vast and sophisticated system that can only be built by dividing it into little pieces. These components of operating system must be well-defined portions of the system, with inputs, outputs, and functionalities.

Components of Operating System

Although Windows, Mac, UNIX, Linux, and other operating systems do not all have the same structure, most OS system components, such as file, memory, process, and I/O device management, are shared by all.

Important Components of the Operating System

The components of operating system are critical in making computer system components operate together. 

Below are the top 8 components of an Operating System:

  1. Process Management
  2. File Management
  3. Network Management
  4. Main Memory Management
  5. Secondary Storage Management
  6. I/O Device Management
  7. Security Management
  8. Command Interpreter System 
top 8 components of an Operating System
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Process Management

The process management component in the list of components of operating system is a mechanism for managing several processes that are running on the operating system at the same time. One or more processes are linked with every operating software application program.

Process management ensures that processes run smoothly. It also makes use of the memory allotted to them and turns them off as necessary.                              

Process management

Must Read Process Management in OS

File Management

The phrase 'Process Management' refers to a mechanism for managing several processes being executed in the operating system simultaneously. When a software application program is running, it has processes related to the software application program.

The various types of process management functions are:

  • Synchronization Process
  • Suspension and Resumption.
  • Communication Process
  • Process Creation and Deletion.
File Management

Network Management

Computer networks are administered and managed via the network management component in the list of components of operating system. Performance management, fault analysis, network provisioning, and service quality management are among its services.

Each processor in a distributed system has its local memory. It is a group of computers or processors linked together by a communication network and communicate over communication links such as fiber optics or telephone lines.

Network management, enables users to design routing and connection methods without connectivity or security issues by connecting the network entirely or partially.

The following are the characteristics of network management:

  • It provides users with access to the network's numerous resources.
  • We have access to resources that are shared. These aid in speeding of computations while also ensuring data availability and dependability.
  • With the use of distributed systems, we can access various computing resources that vary in size and function, such as microprocessors, minicomputers, and various general-purpose computer systems.
Network Management

Main Memory Management

Main memory is an extensive collection of storage or bytes with an address. The memory management component, in components of operating, employs a series of reads or writes to specific memory addresses.

Before executing a program, it must be mapped to absolute addresses and loaded into memory. Several factors influence the choice of a memory management method.

However, it primarily depends on the system's hardware design. Hardware support is required for each algorithm. Main memory provides quick storage that the CPU can access immediately. It is more expensive, and so has a smaller storage capacity. However, a program must reside in the main memory to get executed.                                     

Main Memory Management

You can also see, Advantages of Operating System

Secondary Storage Management

During execution, programs assist in accessing data present in the main memory. The main memory is insufficient to retain all the data and programs indefinitely. As a result, secondary storage serves as a backup for the main memory. Assemblers and compilers are saved on a disc until loaded into memory and processed on the disc.

Following are the features of secondary-storage management as a vital component in a list of components of operating system:

  • Allocates storage
  • Manages free space
  • Disk scheduling
Secondary Storage Management

I/O Device Management

The I/O management system, in the list of components of operating system, has the following functions:

  • It provides a buffer caching system.
  • It includes a general device driver code.
  • It contains drivers for specific hardware devices.
  • I/O allows us to know about a device's unique characteristics.
I/O Device Management

Security Management

The components of operating system must be protected against one another's ac tions. Verifying that processes desiring to access files, memory, CPU, or other hardware resources have the proper permissions from the operating system can be done in many ways.

Memory addressing hardware, for example, can be used to verify that a process can run within its own address space. The time assures that no process retains CPU control without relinquishing it.

Finally, no process is permitted to perform its I/O to protect the integrity of the various peripheral devices.         

Security Management

Command Interpreter System

The operating system's command interpreter is a critical component. It serves as the user's main interface with the system.                                        

Command Interpreter System

You can also read about layered structure of operating system.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an operating system?

An operating system is the most crucial program that runs on a computer. It controls the memory and operations of the computer and all of the software and hardware, with the help of various components of operating system. It also allows us to converse with the computer even if we do not understand its language. 

List some types of the operating system?

The types of operating systems are Batch Operating System, Time-Sharing Operating System, Distributed Operating System, Embedded Operating System, and Real-time Operating System

What are the 8 components of operating system?

The 8 components of an Operating System are Process Management, File Management, Network Management, Main Memory Management, Secondary Storage Management, I/O Device Management, Security Management and Command Interpreter System. 

What are the 5 operating system?

There are various operating systems that are used today. Five most widely used operating systems are Windows, MacOS, Android, iOS, and Linux. 


In this article, we have extensively discussed the components of an operating system. We began with a brief introduction to an operating system followed by a superficial analysis of each component. 

After reading about the components of an operating system, are you not feeling excited to read/explore more articles on this topic? Don't worry; Coding Ninjas has you covered. To learn, see Best Operating System Course OnlineOperating System TrackIntroduction to OS notes, Disk Management in OS, Fork() System Call, Device Management in Operating System and Evolution of operating system.

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