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Last updated: Mar 14, 2022

Computer Organization and Architecture

On our system, we have used programming languages, browsers, various software, and many other things, but what happens behind all of this is still unknown. The amount of processing and various operations that must be performed in order to complete all tasks is enormous. This section of Computer Organization and Architecture will teach you everything you need to know.
Stack Smashing Detected MEDIUM
In this article, we are going to discuss the stack smashing detected error. We will also see how to fix stack smashing detected problem.

Introduction

Beginning with the most fundamental, how computers came into existence, the first computers built, and their evolution over time. In this section, you'll also learn about computer architecture units and machine language.
Evolution of Computer EASY
Evolution of Computers generations 1. First Generation – Vacuum Tubes 2. Second Generation: Transistors 3. Third generation: Integrated Circuits
Difference Between Computer Organization and Architecture MEDIUM
Explore the fundamentals and differences between computer organization and architecture. Learn how computers function at their core with comprehensive resources.
Major Features of Computer EASY
In this blog, we will learn about the features of computer along with some frequently asked questions on the same.
8085 Microprocessor Architecture MEDIUM
8085 is an 8-bit microprocessor. It operates 8-bit at a time. The 8085 microprocessor was created using the N-MOS technology.
Addressing Modes of 8086 MEDIUM
Addressing modes are a technique of describing how an instruction will operate data. For instructions that induce a program branch, this addressing method is necessary.
Classification of computers
In this article, we will be discussing the classification of computers. We will look into detail for each of the categories in the classification of computers.
Units of Digital System
In this article, we will learn about the functional units of a digital system.
Difference Between Machine Language and Assembly Language EASY
Machine language is a low-level programming language represented by 0s and 1s, whereas assembly language is more than low-level and less than high-level language.
Amdahl's Law in Computer Architecture MEDIUM
This blog will help you to clear your understanding of Amdahl's Law in Computer Architecture and its formula as well as its derivation.
What is Booth's Algorithm in Computer Architecture? EASY
In this article we will learn what is booth multiplication algorithm and its working in Computer architechture.
Introduction to Division Algorithm in Computer Architecture MEDIUM
The restoring division algorithm is a method used for binary division in computer architecture. It involves repeatedly subtracting the divisor from the dividend and restoring the partial remainder if the result is negative.
Difference Between SRAM and DRAM EASY
You will find a thorough explanation of the concepts of SRAM and DRAM in this article, along with information on how they differ and are used.

Digital Logic Circuits

We've been learning about logic gates, which perform simple operations like addition, inversion, subtraction, multiplying, and dividing; these are the building blocks for any circuit, particularly computer architectures. In this section, we will learn about its implementation, various GATES, their combinations, and the circuits that can be built with them.
Logic Gates
In this article, we will discuss different types of Logic Gates.
Difference between JFET and MOSFET
In this blog, we will learn about JFET and MOSFET transistors and then we will move on to look at the difference between JFET and MOSFET.
Encoder in Digital Electronics EASY
Digital Electronics, a field focusing on electrical circuits designed to process and manage digital signals, primarily operates on binary logic, using '0' and '1' to represent these signals.
Decoder in Digital Electronics EASY
A Decoder in Digital Electronics is an important device used to convert binary code into a set of signals. It’s used to convert binary signals to octal code.
Difference Between Latch and Flip Flop EASY
This article provides an overview of the differences between two types of digital circuits, latches and flip-flops, and explains their use in digital systems.
XOR Gate MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about XOR Gate. We will understand its symbol, truth table, and much more for better understanding.
What is Flip Flop? MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about What is Flip Flop. We will learn about truth tables, symbols and much more for better understanding.
Half Adder in Digital Logic
This article will cover Half Adder in Digital Logic, it’s operation, truth table, k-maps and frequently asked questions of half adder in digital logic.
Author Shiva
0 upvotes
Carry Look Ahead Adder EASY
In this blog, we will learn about What is Carry Look Ahead Adder. We will learn about truth tables, symbols and much more for better understanding.
Universal Gates EASY
In this blog, we will learn about Universal Gates. We will learn about truth tables, symbols, and much more for better understanding.
NAND Gate EASY
In this blog, we will learn about NAND Date. We will learn about truth tables, symbols and much more for better understanding.
Full Adder in Digital Logic MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about What is Full Adder in Digital Logic. We will learn about truth tables, symbols and much more for better understanding.
Combinational and Sequential Circuits EASY
In this blog, we will learn about Combinational and Sequential Circuits. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
Full Adder Circuit MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about Full Adder Circuit. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
Half Subtractor EASY
In this blog, we will learn about Half Subtractor. We will learn about truth tables, symbols, and much more for better understanding.
Johnson Counter EASY
In this blog, we will learn about Johnson Counter. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
OR Gate EASY
In this blog, we will learn about OR Gate. We will learn about truth tables, symbols, and much more for better understanding.
Boolean Algebra
This blog will discuss Boolean Algebra-Function and its complement, Truth Table, Logic Diagram, Expressions, and Laws.
Ring Counter EASY
In this blog, we will learn about Ring Counter. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
Application of Decoder
In this article, we will cover the meaning of decoder and its applications.
XNOR Gate EASY
In this blog, we will learn about XNOR Gate. We will learn about truth tables, symbols and much more for better understanding.
Difference between Programmable Logic Array and Programming Array Logic
In this blog, we will discuss the difference between pla and pal thus concluding which one would be a better choice for your project.
Map and Map Simplification
This blog explains the Karnaugh map (K-map) Boolean algebraic simplification approach. It also consists of a brief discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of K-maps.
Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) Addition MEDIUM
In this article, we will learn about Binary Coded Decimal Addition. We will dive deeper into the approach of BCD and its implementation in C++, Python, and Java.
Difference between Multiplexer and Demultiplexer EASY
Multiplexers and demultiplexers are combinational circuits. Multiplexers select an input from several inputs and then transmit it as a single line.
Difference Between TDM and FDM
TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) works with both analog as well as digital signals whereas FDM (Frequency Division Multiplexing) only works with analog signals.

Digital Components

It is natural to come across various digital components while learning about computer architecture and its organization. These components are constructed using a variety of logical circuits and chipsets. These components carry out specific tasks such as memory storage, multiplying or dividing lines, and much more. This section will go over components such as encoders, decoders, multiplexers, RAM, and ROM.
Decoders
This article discusses an overview of a decoder, its types, truth table, the boolean functions using different types of gates and applications.
Author Spider
0 upvotes
Encoders
This article discusses an overview of an encoder and their types and their truth table, the boolean functions using different types of gates and their advantages and disadvantages.
Sampling Theorem MEDIUM
The sampling theorem plays an important role in digital signals and processing along with advanced control operations.
Author Nitika
0 upvotes
Seven Segment Display EASY
A seven segment display is an LED(light emitting diode) based display that can be used to show numbers or alphabets.
Multiplexers (MUX)
In this blog, we will learn about multiplexers and the types of multiplexers, along with their boolean expression and logic circuit.
What is Demultiplexer (DEMUX)? EASY
The objective of this article is to teach you what a Demultiplexer is and what several standard Demux configurations are there, along with the corresponding truth table and logic circuits.
Registers
his blog will learn about Registers and their different types.
Application of Multiplexer EASY
Applications of Multiplexer 1. Telecommunication Networks 2. Computer Memory 3. Digital Applications 4. Consumer Electronics
RAM and ROM
In this article, we will learn about different types of RAM and ROM.
Difference between 8085 and 8086 Microprocessor EASY
The 8085 Microprocessor, created by Intel in 1976, preceded the 8086 Microprocessor. It utilized NMOS technology.
Author Nitika
0 upvotes
Difference Between EPROM and EEPROM
In this article, we will discuss the difference between EPROM and EEPROM. ROM stands for Read-Only Memory, EPROM, and EEPROM are types of ROM memory chips.
Difference Between Hard copy and Soft copy MEDIUM
A hard copy is a physical form of data, like printed documents or photos, while a soft copy is digital, stored on a computer or drive.

Data Representation and Computer Arithmetic

Let's take a look at computer arithmetic and representation, which includes a number system, symbols, and various defined representations. Learn about the various operations performed at the machine level, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Different Number Systems and their Interconversion
This article discusses Number systems and their implementation. We talk about different types of number systems, their interconversion, and how they are meaningful in programming.
Complements
In this article, we will learn about complement and its types.
What is Checksum
This blog will discuss the topic of the Checksum, including the definition, working, sample example, and pros and cons.
Fixed and Floating-Point Representation MEDIUM
This article discusses fixed point and floating-point Representation with its examples, parts, advantages, and disadvantages.
Error Detection and Correction Code: Part 1
This blog covers the various error detection and correction code techniques in detail.
Error Detection and Correction Code: Part 2
This blog covers the various error detection and correction code techniques in detail.
Addition and Subtraction
In this article, we learned about the addition and subtraction of signed numbers. We have discussed two ways of addition and subtraction of signed numbers.
Multiplication and Division EASY
The article discusses multiplication and division arithmetic operations and their hardware implementations and flowcharts of algorithms.

Computer Organization and Design

Another important aspect of designing a system or processing unit is computer organization. It is critical to place and configure system components in such a way that they operate at peak efficiency while consuming the least amount of storage. Learn about instruction cycles, interrupts, and control units in this section.
Computer Registers in Computer Architecture EASY
Computer registers are memory storing units that operate at high speed. It's a component of a computer's processor.
Difference between Hardwired and Microprogrammed Control Unit MEDIUM
This article will brief you on the topic of Control Unit, Hardwired and Microprogrammed Control in Computer Organization and Architecture.
Instruction Cycle in Computer Architecture MEDIUM
The instruction cycle is defined as the basic cycle in which a computer system fetches an instruction from memory, decodes it, and then executes it.
ATM in Computer Network EASY
In this blog, we will learn about ATM in Computer Network. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
Instruction Codes in Computer Architecture MEDIUM
Instruction codes are bits that instruct the computer to execute a specific operation. An instruction comprises groups called fields.
What is RAM? MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about What is RAM? We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
Secondary Storage Devices EASY
In this blog, we will learn about Secondary Storage Devices. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
Instructions Types MEDIUM
This article will brief you on the topic of Instructions Types in Computer Organization and Architecture.
What is ROM? EASY
In this blog, we will learn about What is ROM. We will learn about the types, features, advantages, disadvantages and much more for better understanding.
Assembly Language EASY
In this blog, we will learn about Assembly Language. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
Primary Memory EASY
In this blog, we will learn about Primary Memory. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
What is a Server? MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about What is a Server. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
DHCP Dora Process EASY
In this blog, we will learn about DHCP Dora Process. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understandin
3rd Generation of Computer EASY
In this blog, we will learn about 3rd Generation of Computer. We will learn about its characteristics, features, and much more for better understanding.
Interrupt in Computer Architecture EASY
The word `interrupt` generally refers to stopping an ongoing process temporarily. The idea behind interrupts in computer architecture is very similar.
Computer System MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about Computer Systems. We will understand its core concepts, its usage, and much more for better understanding.
First Generation of Computer MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about the First Generation of Computer. We will learn about its characteristics, features, and much more for better understanding.
DHCP in Computer Networks MEDIUM
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a vital network protocol that enables automatic IP address assignment and other network configuration details to client devices on a network.
Direct Memory Access EASY
DMA (Direct Memory Access) is a computer system feature that enables direct data transfer between memory and peripheral devices, like hard drives, without CPU intervention.
What is Middleware EASY
In this blog, we will learn about what is middleware. We will understand its core concepts and learn about its advantages and disadvantages and much more.
Design of Basic Computer MEDIUM
In this article, we will discuss the design of a basic computer.
Embedded Systems EASY
Embedded systems are specialised computing devices that perform specific tasks within larger electronic systems.
Fifth Generation of Computer EASY
In this article, we will discuss the 5th generation of computers that comprises advanced AI capabilities, parallel processing, advanced graphics, and other features.
Characteristics of Embedded System EASY
Embedded systems are the backbone of present-day technologies. In this blog we will discuss characteristics of embedded system in detail. Read on to learn more.
What Is a Motherboard? Definition, Types, Components, and Functions MEDIUM
A motherboard, also known as a mainboard or system board, is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in a computer system.
Difference Between Hardware and Software EASY
In this article, we will see Hardware and Software differences. We will also discuss Computer Hardware and Software and their examples.

Central Processing Unit

Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the brain of any computer system. It is in charge of performing operations ranging from basic arithmetic to complex calculations and instructions. Learn about various data operations such as transfer manipulation and computer instruction sets in this section.
General Register Organization MEDIUM
This article will cover the concepts about general register organization and its role in the circuit.
Stack Organization in Computer Architecture MEDIUM
The Last In First Out (LIFO) list is another name for stack. It is the CPU's most crucial feature. It saves information so that the last element saved is retrieved first.
Data Transfer Instructions EASY
In this article, we will discuss about opcode, operand, types of computer instructions, data transfer instructions and typical data transfer instructions with their explanation.
Data Transfer and Manipulation in Computer Architecture EASY
Explore Data Transfer and Manipulation in Computer Architecture: Detailed Guide on Data Manipulation Instructions Including Arithmetic, Logical, Bit, and Shift Operations.
Program Control Instructions EASY
Program control instructions modify or change the flow of a program. It is the instruction that alters the sequence of the program's execution.
RISC vs CISC EASY
Explore the RISC vs CISC architectures in our comprehensive article, delving into their distinct design philosophies and impact on modern computing.

Pipeline and Vector Processing

A sophisticated computer system would need to perform multiple operations simultaneously, which is why the Pipeline technique is used. We can improve the system's overall performance by pipelining. Learn more about pipelining types, such as Arithmetic, Instruction, and RISC with vector processing.
Parallel Processing EASY
In this article, we will discuss parallel processing. We will see why it is used and its various advantages and disadvantages.
Pipelining in Computer Architecture EASY
Pipelining in computer architecture is a technique that improves CPU throughput by breaking down instruction execution into stages.
Arithmetic Pipeline in Computer Architecture MEDIUM
An arithmetic pipeline in computer architecture is a technique to improve the performance of arithmetic operations by breaking them down into smaller stages that can be executed in parallel.
Author Riya
1 upvote
Instruction Pipeline
This article will discuss the 'Instruction Pipeline’.
Author Riya
1 upvote
RISC Pipeline
This article will discuss RISC Pipeline in detail.
Vector Processing
In this article, we will discuss about vector processing.
Array Processors
This blog covers the concept of array processors in computer architecture that perform computations on a vast array of data. Read more about the classification, configurations, usage, etc of array processors.