Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com. Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com
Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
What is a Register In Computer?
3.
Types of Computer Registers
3.1.
Accumulator Register(AC)
3.2.
Address Register(AR)
3.3.
Data Register(DR)
3.4.
Instruction Register(IR)
3.5.
Input Register(INPR)
3.6.
Program Counter(PC)
3.7.
Temporary Register(TR)
3.8.
Output Register(OUTR)
4.
How Do Registers Operate with other Components?
5.
Purpose of Registers in Computer Architecture
6.
Computer Registers in Embedded Systems
7.
What is the Common Bus System?
8.
Frequently Asked Questions
8.1.
What do you mean by register?
8.2.
What is the purpose of a computer register?
8.3.
What are the 3 types of register?
8.4.
What is register transfer in computer architecture?
8.5.
How many registers are in a CPU?
9.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Apr 22, 2024
Easy

Computer Registers in Computer Architecture

Author Juhi Sinha
3 upvotes
gp-icon
Data structures & algorithms (Beginner to Intermediate)
Free guided path
13 chapters
99+ problems
gp-badge
Earn badges and level up

Introduction

Computer registers are small storage areas inside the CPU. They hold data temporarily while the CPU processes instructions. Registers help the CPU work faster by providing quick access to important information needed for calculations and operations.

In this article, we are going to learn about What are Computer Registers in Computer Architecture. So, without any further ado, let's get started!

register in computer

What is a Register In Computer?

Computer registers are memory storing units that operate at high speed. It's a component of a computer's processor. It can hold any type of data, including a bit sequence or a single piece of data.

Eight registers, a memory unit, and a control unit make up a basic computer. These devices must be connected on a regular basis.

Following is the list of some of the most common registers in computer:

RegisterSymbolNumber of BitsFunction
AccumulatorAC16It's a processor register.
Program counterPC12It stores the address of the instruction.
Address RegisterAR12It is used for storing memory addresses.
Data RegisterDR16It is a general-purpose register used for storing data during calculations.
Instruction RegisterIR16It stores the current instruction being executed.
Temporary RegisterTR16It holds the temporary data.
Input RegisterINPR8It carries the input character.
Output RegisterOUTR8It carries the output character
Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job
Bootcamp

Types of Computer Registers

Registers are a type of computer memory used to accept, store, and transfer data and instructions used by the CPU right away. Processor registers refer to the registers used by the CPU.

During the execution of a program, registers are used to store data temporarily.

In most cases, the number of bits that a register can hold is used to determine its size.

The common registers in a computer and the memory are depicted in the diagram below:

Types of Registers

Basic computer Registers and memory

The following are the various computer registers and their functions:

Accumulator Register(AC)

Accumulator Register is a general-purpose Register. The initial data to be processed, the intermediate result, and the final result of the processing operation are all stored in this register. If no specific address for the result operation is specified, the result of arithmetic operations is transferred to AC. The number of bits in the accumulator register equals the number of bits per word

Address Register(AR)

The Address Register is the address of the memory location or Register where data is stored or retrieved. The size of the Address Register is equal to the width of the memory address is directly related to the size of the memory because it contains an address. If the memory has a size of 2n * m, then the address is specified using n bits

Data Register(DR)

The operand is stored in the Data Register from memory. When a direct or indirect addressing operand is found, it is placed in the Data Register. This value was then used as data by the processor during its operation. It's about the same size as a word in memory

Instruction Register(IR)

The instruction is stored in the Instruction Register. The instruction register contains the currently executed instruction. Because it includes instructions, the number of bits in the Instruction Register equals the number of bits in the instruction, which is n bits for an n-bit CPU

Input Register(INPR)

Input Register is a register that stores the data from an input device. The computer's alphanumeric code determines the size of the input register

Program Counter(PC)

The Program Counter serves as a pointer to the memory location where the next instruction is stored. The size of the PC is equal to the width of the memory address, and the number of bits in the PC is equal to the number of bits in the PC

Temporary Register(TR)

The Temporary Register is used to hold data while it is being processed. As Temporary Register stores data, the number of bits it contains is the same as the number of bits in the data word

Output Register(OUTR)

The data that needs to be sent to an output device is stored in the Output Register. Its size is determined by the alphanumeric code used by the computer

Also read,  what is middleware

How Do Registers Operate with other Components?

Registers in a computer interact with other components through a variety of mechanisms. They serve as temporary storage locations for data and instructions during the execution of instructions by the CPU. Registers are directly accessed by the CPU for fast data manipulation and computation. They are also involved in data transfer between the CPU and other components such as memory, input/output devices, and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). Registers play a crucial role in coordinating the flow of data within the computer system, facilitating efficient data processing and communication between different hardware components.

Purpose of Registers in Computer Architecture

Registers serve several essential purposes in computer architecture. They act as high-speed storage locations for holding data and instructions that are currently being processed by the CPU. Registers enable quick access to data for arithmetic and logic operations performed by the CPU's ALU. They also store memory addresses, program counters, and other control information necessary for program execution. Additionally, registers help in optimizing instruction execution by reducing the need to access slower memory locations, thereby enhancing overall system performance and efficiency.

Computer Registers in Embedded Systems

In embedded systems, registers play a vital role in controlling and coordinating the operation of hardware components within constrained environments. They are used to store configuration settings, control signals, and status information for peripherals and system components. Registers in embedded systems facilitate real-time data processing, sensor interfacing, and communication with external devices. They are often integrated into microcontrollers and microprocessors to manage system resources efficiently and execute tasks with minimal latency. Registers in embedded systems enable precise control over hardware functionality, making them essential components in a wide range of applications, including automotive systems, industrial automation, and consumer electronics.

What is the Common Bus System?

A bus is a pair of signal lines that allows multi-bit data to be transferred from one system to another. A common bus is a more efficient method of sending data in a system with multiple registers. The common bus connects the outputs of seven registers and memory. A bus provides a means for people to communicate with one another.

The basic computer registers and memory connection to a common bus system are depicted in the figure below:

Common Bus System

Also read, microprogrammed control unit

Frequently Asked Questions

What do you mean by register?

Computer registers are memory storing units that operate at high speed. It's a component of a computer's processor. It can hold any type of data, including a bit sequence or a single piece of data.

What is the purpose of a computer register?

Registers are a type of computer memory used to accept, store, and transfer data and instructions used by the CPU right away.

What are the 3 types of register?

Accumulator: It is a processor register. The symbol for the accumulator is AC.

Address register: It stores an address for memory. The symbol for the address register is AR.

Program Counter: It stores the address of the instruction. The symbol for the Program counter is PC.

What is register transfer in computer architecture?

Register transfer refers to data movement between registers in a CPU during instruction execution, forming the basis of microoperations and CPU functionality.

How many registers are in a CPU?

The number of registers in a CPU varies, typically ranging from a handful to dozens, depending on the architecture and design choices.

Conclusion

Congratulations, you did a fantastic job!!. In this article, we have discussed extensively What are Computer Registers in Computer Architecture. We also discussed different Registers that are used in computers and covered the Bus System with the help of a diagram. Finally, some frequently asked questions are discussed. 

Recommended Articles -

 

Do upvote our blog to help other ninjas grow. Happy Coding!

Next article
Difference between Hardwired and Microprogrammed Control Unit
Guided path
Free
gridgp-icon
Data structures & algorithms (Beginner to Intermediate)
13 chapters
109+ Problems
gp-badge
Earn badges and level up
Live masterclass