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Last updated: Nov 28, 2022

Cryptography

What if I tell you, that the message you send on WhatsApp doesn't get delivered in the same way? You might argue with me about how is that possible. You must have seen a message/ warning on Whatsapp, " this message is Encrypted." Whatever message you send using a messenger, the messages are encrypted and decrypted for keeping secrecy. Doesn't this sound exciting that you will be learning how to do this and eventually will learn various other methods to this? But first, let's take you on a basic ride of Introduction to Cryptography, then will explore from classics to advanced.
What Is Blockchain Technology? MEDIUM
In this article, we will learn about the digital ledger across a network of computers referred to as Blockchain.

Introduction

What actually is cryptography again? It's not just encrypting and decrypting. It is much more than that and you will be learning it here. Cryptography is the technique using which we can secure our information and communication. There are various methods for the same.
What is Cryptography and Why Do We Use It?
This blog discussed the concept of cryptography, types and features because of which cryptography is widely used.
What are basic Cryptography tools?
This article will discuss the cryptography tools, Secret-Key, Public key, Block and stream ciphers, and Hybrid Cryptography
What does Message integrity mean?
This article discusses message integrity, how to achieve message integrity, and the techniques involved.
What are Cryptographic Protocols
In this article, we will learn about Cryptographic Protocols. And how this is useful for communications.
Security in Cryptography
In this article, we will learn about Security in Cryptography and the basic concepts of cryptography.
What is Identity Based Cryptography?
In this article, we will learn about Identity Based Cryptography. We'll start by learning about its history. After that, we will learn about Identity Based Encryption, its uses, benefits, and much more.
The Cocks Identity-based Cryptosystem
This article is about the cocks identity-based cryptosystem and prominent methods for encryption.
Boneh-Franklin Identity-Based Cryptosystem
This article incorporates information about the Boneh-Franklin identity-based cryptosystem and explains pairing-based cryptography.
The Paillier Cryptosystem
In this, we will explore the Paillier Cryptosystem. Its encryption and decryption technique, along with its applications.
Identifiable Parent Property HARD
This article incorporates information on copyright protection and identifiable parent property.
2-IPP codes - Now, that’s encrypted
This blog discussed the 2-IPP code tracing technique. We also dicuss copyright violations and theorems of 2-IPP.
Tracing Illegally Redistributed Keys
This article incorporates information about tracing illegally redistributed keys and explains broadcast encryption
Bitcoin and BlockChain Technology - Let’s make some money
In this article, we will cover bitcoin and blockchain technology with the help of some facts.
What are Security Services in Cryptography EASY
In this article, we discuss what are security services in cryptography.
Cryptography and Network Security MEDIUM
In this article, we will learn about Cryptography and Network Security along with principles and applications. We will also explore the difference between these terms in detail

Classics

By classics, we mean older, steps. What if no one would have first encrypted the text? Do you think today we would be talking about this? No right. Classics mainly include the simplest cryptography methods, including substitution - Ceaser cipher, monoalphabetic and polyalphabetic. What are they? these form the building blocks while going forward.
What Do You Mean by Cryptosystem?
In this article, we will discuss what cryptosystems are. We will also discuss the type, components, and attack models.
What is a CipherText? EASY
In this article, we will discuss what is ciphertext, types of ciphers, uses of ciphertext, ciphertext attacks and some examples of ciphertext.
Caesar, Shift the Cipher EASY
This blog discussed about shift cipher, the formula used, example, implementation, advantages, and disadvantages.
Substitution in Cipher EASY
This blog will teach about cipher and types of substitution in cipher.
Special thy Affine Cipher EASY
This blog discussed about Affine cipher, the formula used, example, implementation, and weaknesses.
Non-monoalphabetic Vigenere Cipher MEDIUM
This article incorporates information about the Non-monoalphabetic Vigener Cipher and how to implement it.
Polyalphabetic: Hill Cipher MEDIUM
This blog will teach about polyalphabetic hill cipher.
Cipher-Permutate It, Keeping Plaintext
This article will discuss the permutation cipher, how it is encoded, how to identify it, and everything else about it.
Cipher, blow the stream MEDIUM
This article incorporates information about one of the cryptography methods known as a stream cipher.
Analysis in Cryptography Cryptanalysis MEDIUM
This article incorporates information about cryptanalysis and the various methods included in cryptanalysis.
Cryptanalysis of Affine Cipher
In this article, we will explore the Cryptanalysis of Affine Cipher. With proper examples and applications.
Cryptanalysis of Substitution Cipher EASY
In this blog, we will cover the Cryptanalysis of Substitution Cipher. We will also cover Substitution Cipher in detail with examples.
Cryptanalysis of Vigenere Cipher
This article will discuss the Vigenere cipher and the different tests we use for its analysis techniques.
Cryptanalysis of Hill Cipher MEDIUM
This article briefly describes Hill Cipher and discusses the cryptanalysis of Hill Cipher in detail.
Author kaido
0 upvotes

Block Ciphers

By now, you must have the basic idea and also know somewhat about what are block ciphers. Here, you will learn more by diving deep into the concept and know about SPN.
Substitution-Permutation Networks(SPN) in Cryptography
In this article, we will discuss the Origin, Properties, Components and some operations of Substitution-Permutation Networks(SPN) in Cryptography.
What is Linear Cryptanalysis? MEDIUM
In this article, we will learn about Linear Cryptanalysis. Further, we will discuss the working of Cryptanalysis and the Piling-up lemma in Linear Cryptanalysis.
Introduction to Differential Cryptanalysis HARD
This blog explains what differential cryptanalysis is and where it can be used. We also go through the mechanism of the differential attack.
Can You Tell us What is the Difference Between Differential and Linear Cryptanalysis? MEDIUM
In this article, we will cover the types of cryptanalytic attacks, variants of cryptanalysis and the differences between differential and linear Cryptanalysis.
Approximations of S-boxes linearly in Cryptography MEDIUM
This article will teach you how we can perform a linear approximation of S-boxes in Cryptography using probabilistic mathematics and random variables.
How to launch a linear attack on an SPN?
In this article, we will learn how to launch a linear attack on an SPN. We will also understand the concept of linear cryptanalysis.
Let’s Set the Standard of Data Encryption HARD
This article will teach you about DES. You will learn about the standard data encryption process used in DES, its history, analysis, and applications.
Advancing the Data Encryption Standard HARD
This article will teach you about Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). You will learn about the encryption processes of AES, its history, and analysis.
Introduction to Modes of Operations EASY
In this article, we will discuss what Block Cipher is and its different types of modes along with the advantages and disadvantages of each mode.

Hash Functions

As we have learned that hash functions can be helpful in storing the data in c, and c++ and they use a key. Here, also we will talk about hash functions and how these hash functions help to store data secretly.
Hash Functions and Data Integrity in Cryptography EASY
This article will discuss hash functions in cryptography and its application as data integrity with various methods to achieve authenticity.
Security of Hash Functions in Cryptography
This article will discuss how the security of hash functions in cryptography is achieved in detail.
The Random Oracle Model and its Algorithms in Cryptography
In this blog, we will be looking at random oracle modes in cryptography.
Neo4j Query Cypher Language
Cypher Language is a query language introduced by Neo4j where It deals with the nodes, and the data is present in the graph format. ASCII-Art is used to create patterns in cypher language.
Comparison of Security Criteria in Hash
In this article, we will discuss the Comparison of Security Criteria in Hash and basic concepts of Cryptography.
Iterated Hash Functions
This article will discuss what iterated hash functions are and the steps to create an iterated hash function and its application.
The Merkle-Damgard Construction in Hash functions MEDIUM
This article discusses the Merkle-Damgard Construction in Hash Function.
Author kaido
0 upvotes
The Sponge Construction in Hash Functions
This blog will discuss the sponge construction in hash functions and about SHA-3, its design and security levels
Message Authentication Codes in Cryptography
This article incorporates the Message Authentication Codes in Cryptography.
Nested MACs and HMAC in Cryptography
This article incorporates the Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Codes in Cryptography.
CBC-MAC in Cryptography MEDIUM
 This article incorporates the Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Codes in Cryptography.
Authenticated Encryption in Cryptography
In this article, we will discuss everything about Authenticated Encryption in Cryptography.
Unconditionally Secure MACs in Cryptography
This article will discuss the Unconditionally secure Macs in Cryptography, their working, and limitations.
Optimality of Deception Probabilities in Cryptography
This article discusses the Optimality of Deception Probabilities in Cryptography. It also discusses some faqs based on the same.
Author Alisha
0 upvotes
Strongly Universal Hash Families in Cryptography MEDIUM
Various theorems of one of the foundational concepts of Unconditionally Secure MACs- Strongly Universal Hash Families in Cryptography.

RSA Cryptosystem and Factoring Integers

One of the most popular cryptography methods and one of the oldest is RSA. It is a public-key cryptosystem. It stands for Rivest(Ron Rivest), Shamir(Adi Shamir), and Adleman (Leonard Adleman), who were the describers of this algorithm.
Introduction to Public Key Cryptography
This article will study public-key cryptography, its types, and applications.
What is the Euclidean Algorithm? MEDIUM
This blog will discuss the euclidean algorithm in detail, along with some examples for a good understanding of the Euclidean algorithm.
What is the Chinese Remainder theorem? MEDIUM
In this article, you’ll learn about the Chinese remainder theorem.
Introduction to The RSA Cryptosystem MEDIUM
In this article, you'll learn about the Introduction to The RSA Cryptosystem.
Let’s Implement the RSA
In the Article, we got to know about implementing the RSA, its Applications, Predictions and Hardware Implementation.
What is Primality testing? HARD
This blog will cover essential aspects of primality testing. We will also study types of primality testing.
Legendre and Jacobi Symbols MEDIUM
This blog will cover essential aspects of Legendre and Jacobi symbols. We will study each of them in detail.
What is Solovay-Strassen Algorithm? MEDIUM
This blog will cover essential aspects of the Solovay-Strassen algorithm with code implementation.
Introduction to the Miller-Rabin Algorithm MEDIUM
In this article, we will learn the Miller-Rabin algorithm. Also, we will implement the Miller-Rabin algorithm in various programming languages.
What is Square Roots Modulo? MEDIUM
In this article, we will learn about the Square Roots Modulo. We will also see Tonelli-Shank's algorithm to find Square Roots Modulo.
What are Factoring Algorithms? MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about different factoring algorithms for integer factorization and will also see their codes.
The Pollard P-1 Algorithm MEDIUM
In this article, we will look into the pollard p-1 algorithm, and we’ll also cover some prerequisites.
Author Shiva
0 upvotes
The Pollard Rho Algorithm MEDIUM
In this article, we will look into The Pollard Rho Algorithm and cover some prerequisites.
Author Shiva
0 upvotes
Dixon’s Random Squares Algorithm MEDIUM
In this article, we will look into Dixon’s Random Squares Algorithm and cover some prerequisites.
Author Shiva
0 upvotes
What are the Factoring Algorithms in Practice? MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about different factoring algorithms for integer factorization.
What are the Attacks on RSA?
In this blog, we will learn about different attacks on RSA Cryptosystem.
Wiener’s Low Decryption Exponent Attack on RSA MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about the Low exponent attack and the decryption exponent and Wiener’s attack, i.e., Wiener's Low Decryption Exponent Attack. We will also discuss the strategy for Wiener’s attack and its algorithm.
Author Rashi
0 upvotes
What is the Rabin Cryptosystem? MEDIUM
In this blog, we will learn about the Rabin Cryptosystem, and the various steps involved in this cryptosystem. We will also go through the key generation, encryption, decryption along with the examples and then full implementation of the Rabin cryptosystem in C++.
Author Rashi
0 upvotes
What is Semantic Security of RSA?
In this article we will go through what semantic security means, what is the RSA algorithm and what is the semantic security of RSA.
Author Rashi
0 upvotes
Monte Carlo Simulation EASY
In this article, we will learn about the Monte Carlo Simulation in a detailed manner with its characteristics and steps.
The Partial Information Concerning Plaintext Bits for obtaining the semantic security
This article discusses the Partial Information Concerning Plaintext Bits for obtaining semantic security in detail.
Author Alisha
0 upvotes

Discrete Logarithms

Discrete Logarithm in Cryptography is a problem statement that is discussed among the community. There are various theorems that help us in solving this problem, such as Shank's algorithm... We will be discussing them one by one and getting to know more about this problem.
Hello! I am ElGamal Cryptosystem
This article incorporates the ElGamal Encryption Algorithm in Cryptography.
Algorithms: It’s Shank’s not Sharks MEDIUM
Several aspects of one most important algorithms for discrete logarithms- Shank’s Algorithm in detail.
The Pollard Rho but for Discrete Logarithm Algorithms
In this blog, we will discuss the pollard rho method for solving discrete logarithms, its the algorithm, and its implementation.
Pohlig and Hellman joined forces for this Algorithm
This article incorporates information about how Pohlig and Hellman joined forces for the Pohlig–Hellman algorithm.
Calculus but Index Calculus Method HARD
This article incorporates information about the ElGamal Cryptosystem and Index Calculus algorithm.
Lower Bounds on the complexity of Generic Algorithms In Cryptography
This article incorporates information about the lower bounds on the complexity of generic algorithms' work.
Galois Field in Cryptography EASY
This article will briefly explain the Galois field in cryptography.
Joux’s Index Calculus for Fields of Small Characteristic
This blog discusses Joux’s Index Calculus for fields of small characteristics in detail.
Not just in mathematics but here as well Elliptic Curves HARD
This article incorporates information on elliptical curves and elliptic curve cryptography.
Let’s practice some Discrete Logarithms
This article discusses the Discrete Logarithms in cryptography in detail. We will solve the problems based on Discrete Logarithms along with their solutions.
Author Alisha
0 upvotes
Bit Security of Discrete logarithms
This article discusses the Bit Security of Discrete Logarithms in detail.
Author Alisha
0 upvotes
Semantic Security of ElGamal System EASY
In this blog we have discussed about the ElGamal Encryption system and their semantic security
Again Hellman, Diffie-Hellman Problems
This blog explains the Diffie-Hellman Problem of Cryptography. In detail, we will discuss cryptography techniques and then the diffie-hellman key exchange algorithm.

Signature Schemes

We know that cryptography uses mathematical techniques to get the required result. We have by far learned various such rules and tried to understand their uses. Now, one such mathematical techniques are signature scheme. Primarily Digital Signature schemes are used by hash functions for network security.
What is a Signature Scheme?
In this article, we will discuss what is a signature scheme. Walk through the various signature schemes and discuss the fundamental differences between conventional and digital signatures.
RSA Signature Scheme in Cryptography MEDIUM
This article will discuss Digital Signatures using RSA in Cryptography along with its implementation
Security Requirements for Signature Schemes EASY
This article gives a detailed overview of the Security Requirements for Signature Schemes.
Author Komal
0 upvotes
What are ElGamal Signature Schemes? MEDIUM
This article will discuss digital signatures and what ElGamal signature schemes are.
Security of the ElGamal Signature Scheme MEDIUM
This article briefly discusses the ElGamal Signature Scheme and its security factors.
Author kaido
0 upvotes
Full Domain Hash in Cryptography HARD
This article explains Full Domain Hash, based on the RSA-signature scheme.
Author Sajid
0 upvotes
The Schnorr Signature Scheme MEDIUM
This blog will discuss ElGamal Signature Schemes and Schnorr Signature Scheme.
Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) in Cryptography EASY
In this blog, we will discuss Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) and Symmetric and Asymmetric encryption in detail.
The Elliptic Curve DSA
This article explains the details of The Elliptic Curve DSA and the details of Digital Signature Schemes, Classification, Concept Related to ECDSA, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Implementation of ECDSA.
Signing and Encrypting in Cryptography
This blog will discuss signing and encrypting in cryptography. We will further look at digital signatures, certificates, and Encryption in cryptography.

Post-Quantum

Post Quantum Cryptography is also known as quantum-resistant cryptography. It is mainly used to develop secured systems. These also involve the algorithms and approaches to achieve such systems.
Let’s Expand the Acronym NTRU
In the Article, we read about Deniable Key Agreement Schemes, deniability and scenarios
Lattices and the Security of NTRU MEDIUM
Various aspects of the Security of NTRU in detail and in brief about Lattice in Cryptography
Learning with the Errors- Lattice in Cryptography HARD
Several examples and introduction to the concept of Learning with the Errors in detail and in brief about Lattice in Cryptography.
Code-based Cryptography and the McEliece Cryptosystem MEDIUM
Various aspects of Code-based cryptography and the McEliece cryptosystem in detail.
What are Multivariate Cryptography MEDIUM
Several modules of Multivariate Cryptography- Public Key Cryptosystems, signature schemes, applications
Field Equations but they are hidden in cryptography
This blog explains the details of Field Equations but they are hidden in cryptography.
The Oil and Vinegar Signature Scheme - We are not making food
This blog explains the details of The Oil and Vinegar Signature Scheme - We are not making food.
Hash Based Signature Schemes
This blog explains the details of Hash Based Signature Schemes.
Lamport Signature Scheme
This blog will discuss the Lamport signature scheme. We will further discuss how the Lamport signature works in cryptography.
Winternitz Signature Scheme
We will discuss the Winternitz signature scheme. We will discuss its working of it and how it is better than other signature schemes.
Merkle Signature Scheme
This article gives a detailed overview of the Merkle Signature Scheme.
Author Komal
0 upvotes

Identify Schemes

We need some schemes or methods to uniquely identify anything. Just following this, in cryptography to identify unique records we work with these identification schemes. All of us would want that the message for example, that we are sending to our Friend Tom Mitchell should go to that specific Tom Mitchell only.
Introduction to Identification or Entity Authentication
In this blog, we will learn about Entity authentication or Identification. Also, we will know what are the Identification Protocol’s basis, applications and properties.
Author Rashi
0 upvotes
Enter Your Password and Make Sure it is Strong
In this blog, we will learn about how to provide security using Passwords and different attacks on Password security.
Securing the Identification Schemes
In this blog, we will learn about secure identification schemes in Cryptography.
There is a Challenge and Response in the Secret Key Setting
We will discuss the Challenge and response in the Secret-key setting, random challenges, MAC security, attack model and adversarial goals, and mutual authentication.
Attack With Model With Adversarial Goals
In this article, we will look into an attack with model with adversarial goals and some related topics.
Author Shiva
0 upvotes
It’s Mutual Authentication
In this article, we will look into mutual authentication, how we use it, and some prerequisites.
Author Shiva
0 upvotes
Challenge and response in the Public-key setting HARD
In this article, we will understand the Challenge and response authentication in the Public-key setting. We will also see its uses and limitations.
The Schnorr Identification Scheme HARD
In this article, we will understand Schnorr Identification Scheme. We will see its uses, working, and how secure it is.
The Feige-Fiat-Shamir Identification Scheme - it’s crowded here MEDIUM
Several aspects of one of the most important Identification Schemes: Feige-Fiat-Shamir Identification Scheme.

Key Distribution

There are various public servers, which distribute the public key. It is quite a task to distribute the public keys between the receiver and the sender. If by chance a message-specific key is known to someone else, your message can be harmed. Let's dig into the question of how this is done.
Introduction to Key Distribution
We will provide an introduction to key distribution, talk about the various terms required to understand the topic like key pre-distribution, session key distribution, and key agreement, and discuss the attack models and adversarial goals with context to key distribution.
Diffie-Hellman Key Predistribution
In this article, we will talk about key distribution, and Diffie-Hellman Key Predistribution.
Its Not Bloom But Blom Scheme in Cryptography
This article will discuss its not bloom but Blom scheme in cryptography.
Key Predistribution in Sensor Networks
In this blog, we will learn about Key Predistribution in Sensor Networks
The Needham-Schroeder Scheme
In this blog, we will learn about the Needham-Schroeder Scheme in detail.
The Denning Sacco Attack on the NS Scheme
In this blog, we will learn about the attack on the Needham-Schroeder scheme and the denning-Sacco attack.
What are Kerberos?
We will learn about the Session Key Distribution Schemes. We will cover the schemes Needham-Schroeder Scheme, The Denning-Sacco Attack on the NS Scheme, and Kerberos.
The Bellare Rogaway Scheme
In this article, we will learn about the Bellare-Rogaway Scheme, a brief introduction to session key distribution, its security properties, and the assumptions made to achieve that security.
Author Rashi
0 upvotes
Re-keying and the Logical Key Hierarchy MEDIUM
In this article, you'll learn about Re-keying and the Logical Key Hierarchy
What are Threshold Schemes
We will discuss what threshold schemes are in detail. We will also discuss its methodology, its application and the types of threshold schemes.
The Shamir Scheme EASY
In the Article, we read about the Shamir Scheme and its advantages and disadvantages.
A Simplified (t, t)-threshold Scheme MEDIUM
In the article, we read about the (t, t)-threshold Scheme.
Visual Threshold Schemes
This article helps us to learn about visual cryptography, visual cryptography scheme, its definition, and some of its applications.

Key Agreement Schemes

We will be discussing about some protocols which are a kind of agreement between two or more parties regarding the key. This agreement is done in such a way that the particles influence the outcome. How this key Agreement is done? Everything we will discuss here
What is Transport Layer Security (TLS)?
This article covers transport layer security, including all its features and working.
Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement MEDIUM
In this article, we will understand the Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement, its uses, its multiple versions, and the security concerns that must be considered to implement it properly.
The Station-to-station Key Agreement Scheme MEDIUM
In this article, we will understand the Station-to-station Key Agreement Scheme. We will see its uses, working, and how it helps in increasing security.
Security of STS in Cryptography
In this article, you will learn about the Security of STS in Cryptography
Session Attacks and Hijacking in Cryptography
This article will cover Session Attacks and Hijacking in Cryptography, including their types and working in detail.
Key Derivation Functions MEDIUM
In this article, we will understand the Key Derivation Functions. We will see their uses, working, and how they help in increasing security.
MTI Key Agreement Schemes
You'll learn about the MTI Key Agreement Schemes in this article.
Known Session Key Attacks on MTI/A0
In this article, you'll learn about the Known Session Key Attacks on MTI/A0.
Deniable Key Agreement Schemes
In the Article, we read about Deniable Key Agreement Schemes, deniability and scenarios.
What Are Key Updating In Cryptography?
In this article, we’ll study the concept of key updating in cryptography.
What are Conference Key Agreement Schemes
In the Article, we read about Conference Key Agreement Schemes. We also read about preliminaries, protocols and Agreements.