Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com. Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com
Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Understanding Data Analytics
3.
Data Analysis Steps
3.1.
Ask Questions
3.2.
Get the Data
3.3.
Clean the Data
3.4.
Analyze
3.5.
Interpret Results
3.6.
Make Decisions
4.
Types of Data Analytics
4.1.
Descriptive Analytics
4.1.1.
Example
4.2.
Diagnostic Analytics
4.2.1.
Example
4.3.
Predictive Analytics
4.3.1.
​​Example
4.4.
Prescriptive Analytics
4.4.1.
Example
5.
Data Analytics Techniques
5.1.
Data Mining
5.2.
Regression Analysis
5.3.
Machine Learning
5.4.
Text Analytic
5.5.
Cluster Analysis
6.
Data Analytics Tools
6.1.
Excel
6.2.
Tableau
6.3.
Python
6.4.
R
6.5.
SQL
6.6.
Power BI
7.
The Role of Data Analytics
7.1.
Improving Decision-Making
7.2.
Understanding Customers
7.3.
Boosting Efficiency
7.4.
Predicting Trends
7.5.
Solving Problems
8.
Importance and Uses of Data Analytics
8.1.
In Businesses
8.2.
In Healthcare
8.3.
In Education
8.4.
In Sports
8.5.
In Government
9.
Who Is Using Data Analytics?
9.1.
Small Businesses
9.2.
Schools and Teachers
9.3.
Doctors and Hospitals
9.4.
Sports Teams
9.5.
City Planners
9.6.
Farmers
10.
Frequently Asked Questions
10.1.
Do I need to be good at math to do data analytics?
10.2.
Can small businesses benefit from data analytics?
10.3.
How is data analytics different from data science?
11.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
Medium

Data Analytics

Author Gunjan Batra
0 upvote
Leveraging ChatGPT - GenAI as a Microsoft Data Expert
Speaker
Prerita Agarwal
Data Specialist @
23 Jul, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

Introduction

Data analytics is the magic that turns raw data into useful insights. Imagine having a bunch of numbers & letters that, on their own, don't mean much. But with data analytics, we can sort, analyze, & make sense of all that information to help businesses make better decisions, improve their services, & understand their customers better.

Data Analytics

This article will walk you through what data analytics involves, including its steps, types, techniques, tools, and much more. So, if you're curious about how data gets transformed into actionable insights, you're in the right place!

Understanding Data Analytics

Data analytics is all about looking closely at information to understand it better. It's like being a detective, but instead of solving mysteries, you're finding out interesting things from data. First, we collect data, which could be anything from numbers about sales to feedback from customers. Then, we clean it up, making sure it's accurate and ready to use. After that, we analyze this clean data to find patterns or answers to our questions. For example, a shop might use data analytics to figure out which products are popular and at what times of the year.

This process helps businesses make smart choices. If a shop knows what products are hot sellers, they can make sure to have plenty of those items in stock when people want to buy them. Data analytics can also show what's not working well, so businesses can fix problems or improve things that aren't doing as good as they could be.

Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job
Bootcamp

Data Analysis Steps

When we do data analytics, we follow some steps to make sure everything goes smoothly. It's like baking a cake; you need to follow the recipe step by step to get a delicious result. Here are the steps we usually take:

Ask Questions

First, we need to know what we're looking for. It's like having a goal. For example, a business might want to know why their sales are going down.

Get the Data

Next, we gather the information we need. This could be sales records, customer feedback, or anything relevant to the questions we're asking.

Clean the Data

Not all data is ready to use. Sometimes there are mistakes or missing parts. So, we clean it up, sort of like peeling and chopping vegetables before cooking.

Analyze

Now comes the fun part. We look at the clean data and try to find patterns or answers. This could be done by making graphs, doing calculations, or using special computer programs.

Interpret Results

After analyzing, we look at what we've found and try to understand what it means for our questions. It's like figuring out what your findings in a science experiment mean.

Make Decisions

The last step is to use what we've learned to make decisions. For example, if a business finds out that people buy more ice cream in hot weather, they might decide to stock up more when it's warm.

Types of Data Analytics

In data analytics, there are different ways we can look at data to find out what we need. Think of it as having different tools in a toolbox; each tool does something special. Here are the main types:

Descriptive Analytics

This type helps us understand what has happened in the past. It's like looking at a photo album to see what events took place. For example, a business might use descriptive analytics to see how much they sold last month.

Example

Imagine a small bookstore that wants to understand its sales performance over the last year. They gather all the sales data and create a report that shows how many books were sold each month, which genres were the most popular, and which days of the week saw the highest sales. This report gives them a clear picture of their past sales trends, such as noticing that more books are sold during the holiday season and that mystery novels are the best sellers.

Diagnostic Analytics

This goes a step further and tries to figure out why something happened. It's like being a detective and looking for clues. If sales dropped last month, diagnostic analytics would help find out why.

Example

The same bookstore noticed a significant drop in sales in August. Using diagnostic analytics, they start looking into various factors that could have caused this decrease. They examine if there were fewer visitors that month, if a popular book series went out of stock, or if there was any construction work nearby that made access to the store difficult. After analyzing these factors, they might find that a nearby road closure for repairs made it harder for customers to visit the store, leading to lower sales.

Predictive Analytics

This type uses the past data to guess what might happen in the future. It's a bit like making a weather forecast. If we know sales go up in December every year, we might predict they'll do the same this December.

​​Example

With the information they have from past sales data, the bookstore decides to use predictive analytics to forecast future sales. They analyze sales patterns, including seasonal trends and the impact of new book releases, to predict sales for the coming months. This might show them that sales are likely to increase in December due to holiday shopping. They can use this prediction to stock up on more books and even plan special holiday promotions.

Prescriptive Analytics

This is the most advanced type. It not only predicts what will happen but also suggests actions to take. It's like a GPS that not only tells you where you are but also the best way to get to your destination. If we predict sales will go down, prescriptive analytics might suggest a sale or promotion to boost them.

Example

Taking it a step further with prescriptive analytics, the bookstore doesn't just want to know what will happen; they want advice on what to do about it. They use their data analysis to come up with recommendations. For example, if they predict a decline in sales for a particular month, the analytics might suggest hosting author events or creating a loyalty program to increase customer visits and purchases. This way, the bookstore not only knows what might happen but also has a plan to improve the situation.

Data Analytics Techniques

In data analytics, we use different techniques to dig into data and find useful insights. Think of these techniques as different recipes you can use to cook up some interesting findings from your data ingredients. Here are a few common ones:

Data Mining

This is like going on a treasure hunt in your data. We use special tools to search through large amounts of data to find patterns, relationships, or anomalies. It's useful for finding hidden insights that aren't immediately obvious.

Example -

For data mining, we can use the pandas library to explore a dataset and find interesting patterns.

import pandas as pd
# Load a dataset (example: sales data)
data = pd.read_csv('sales_data.csv')
# Explore the top-selling products
top_products = data.groupby('Product')['Quantity'].sum().sort_values(ascending=False).head(5)
print("Top Selling Products:\n", top_products)
# Find correlations between sales and discounts
correlation = data['Sales'].corr(data['Discount'])
print("\nCorrelation between Sales and Discount:", correlation)

Regression Analysis

This technique helps us understand how certain factors are related. For example, a grocery store might use regression analysis to see how weather affects their sales. They might find that sales of certain items go up when it's raining.

Example-: 

For regression analysis, we can use the statsmodels library to examine relationships between variables.

import statsmodels.api as sm
# Load your dataset
data = pd.read_csv('sales_data.csv')
# Define your independent variables (X) and dependent variable (y)
X = data[['AdvertisingBudget', 'StoreSize']]
y = data['Sales']
# Add a constant to the model (intercept)
X = sm.add_constant(X)
# Fit the regression model
model = sm.OLS(y, X).fit()
# Print the summary of the regression model
print(model.summary())

Machine Learning

This is a more advanced technique where we teach computers to learn from data and make predictions. It's like training a pet; you teach it tricks based on past behaviors. In data analytics, we might use machine learning to predict future sales based on past sales data.

Examples-

For a simple machine learning example, we'll use the scikit-learn library to predict future values based on historical data.

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
# Load and prepare your dataset
data = pd.read_csv('sales_data.csv')
X = data[['PreviousMonthSales', 'AdvertisingBudget']]
y = data['CurrentMonthSales']
# Split the dataset into training and testing sets
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)
# Initialize and train the model
model = LinearRegression()
model.fit(X_train, y_train)# Make predictions
predictions = model.predict(X_test)
print("Predictions:", predictions)

Text Analytic

Sometimes, the data we want to analyze is in the form of text, like customer reviews or social media posts. Text analytics helps us make sense of this text data, finding patterns or sentiments. It's like reading through a pile of customer feedback forms to understand what customers really think.

Example-

For text analytics, we can use the nltk library to analyze sentiment from customer reviews.

import nltk
from nltk.sentiment import SentimentIntensityAnalyzer
# Sample text data (could be customer reviews)
reviews = ["This product was amazing!", "Not what I expected, very disappointed.", "Okay, but could be better."]
# Initialize the sentiment analyzer
sia = SentimentIntensityAnalyzer()
# Analyze the sentiment of each review
for review in reviews:
    print(review)
    sentiment = sia.polarity_scores(review)
    print("Sentiment Score:", sentiment)

Cluster Analysis

This technique groups similar data points together. It's like sorting your laundry into piles of colors, whites, and delicates. A business might use cluster analysis to segment their customers into groups with similar buying habits.

Example-

For cluster analysis, we can use the scikit-learn library to segment data into groups.

from sklearn.cluster import KMeans
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# Load your dataset
data = pd.read_csv('customer_data.csv')
X = data[['AnnualIncome', 'SpendingScore']]
# Apply KMeans clustering
kmeans = KMeans(n_clusters=5, random_state=42).fit(X)
clusters = kmeans.labels_
# Plot the clusters
plt.scatter(X['AnnualIncome'], X['SpendingScore'], c=clusters, cmap='viridis')
plt.xlabel('Annual Income')
plt.ylabel('Spending Score')
plt.title('Customer Segments')
plt.show()

Data Analytics Tools

In data analytics, we use various tools to help us work with data more efficiently. These tools are like different apps on your phone, each designed for a specific task. Here are some popular ones:

Excel

You might have used Excel before. It's great for basic data analysis tasks like sorting, filtering, and simple calculations. It's like a Swiss Army knife for data tasks.

Tableau

This tool is all about making data look good. With Tableau, you can create colorful charts and graphs that make it easier to see patterns and trends in your data. It's like turning data into art.

Python

Python is a programming language that's really popular in data analytics. It has special libraries, like pandas and scikit-learn, which are like toolkits full of data analysis and machine learning tools.

R

R is another programming language used a lot in statistics and data analysis. It's great for more complex data analysis and creating detailed statistical models. Think of it as a calculator on steroids.

SQL

SQL (pronounced "sequel") is used to talk to databases. When you need to find, add, or change data stored in a big database, SQL is your go-to tool. It's like the search engine for databases.

Power BI

Power BI is a tool from Microsoft that lets you combine data from different sources, analyze it, and create interactive reports and dashboards. It's like a supercharged version of Excel for big data projects.

The Role of Data Analytics

Data analytics plays a big part in helping businesses and organizations make smart decisions. It's like having a guide in a maze, showing the best path to take. Here's how data analytics helps:

Improving Decision-Making

With data analytics, businesses don't have to guess what their customers want or what will make them more successful. They have clear data to help them make informed choices. It's like choosing a road to travel with a map rather than just guessing.

Understanding Customers

Data analytics helps businesses understand what their customers like, don't like, and what they need. This way, they can provide better products or services. It's like knowing exactly what gift to buy a friend because you know what they like.

Boosting Efficiency

By analyzing data, companies can find better ways to do things, saving time and money. For example, a delivery company might find a faster route for their deliveries. It's like finding a shortcut on your way home that saves you time.

Predicting Trends

Data analytics can look at past trends and predict what might happen in the future. This helps businesses prepare for what's coming. It's like having a weather forecast so you know if you need an umbrella tomorrow.

Solving Problems

When things go wrong, data analytics can help find out why. This helps fix problems faster and prevents them from happening again. It's like figuring out why a plant isn't growing well and then knowing it needs more sunlight.

Importance and Uses of Data Analytics

Data analytics is super important because it helps in many ways. Let's look at why it's so valuable and how different areas use it:

In Businesses

Data analytics is like the compass for businesses navigating the vast sea of market competition. It guides them by providing insights into customer behavior, market trends, and operational performance. For instance, a retail chain can analyze transaction data to identify which products are flying off the shelves and at what times of the year. This information allows them to optimize inventory levels, reducing both overstock and stockouts, ultimately improving profitability. Moreover, data analytics can uncover customer preferences, enabling businesses to tailor their marketing strategies, personalize customer experiences, and develop products that meet specific needs.

In Healthcare

In the healthcare sector, data analytics is akin to a diagnostic tool that extends beyond individual patient care. It helps in predicting outbreaks, improving patient outcomes, and reducing costs. By analyzing patient data, healthcare providers can identify effective treatments more quickly and anticipate potential health issues before they become serious. For example, by analyzing trends and patterns in patient data, hospitals can predict patient admissions, better manage staff scheduling, and allocate resources more efficiently, leading to enhanced patient care and reduced wait times.

In Education

The role of data analytics in education is transformative, personalizing the learning experience and optimizing educational outcomes. Schools and universities can analyze academic performance data to identify students who might need additional support, tailor curriculum to better engage students, and predict future trends in education needs. This tailored approach helps in addressing learning gaps and enhancing the overall effectiveness of educational programs.

In Sports

In the sports industry, data analytics is the game-changer, enhancing player performance and team strategies. Teams analyze game data to optimize player training, develop game strategies, and improve player selection processes. For instance, a basketball team might analyze player shooting data to determine the most effective shooting spots on the court or to tailor training programs to improve player skills in specific areas.

In Government

For government agencies, data analytics is the backbone of smart governance. It supports decision-making in urban planning, public safety, and resource management. By analyzing traffic patterns, governments can optimize traffic flow and reduce congestion. In public safety, predictive analytics can help in deploying law enforcement resources more effectively to areas with higher crime rates. Additionally, data analytics assists in efficient resource management, such as water and energy, contributing to sustainable development.

Who Is Using Data Analytics?

Lots of different people and organizations use data analytics to help them do things better. It's not just for big companies or tech experts. Here are some examples:

Small Businesses

Even small shops or local businesses use data analytics. They might look at which products sell the most or what times are busiest. This helps them know what to stock up on and when to have more staff working.

Schools and Teachers

Teachers use data analytics to see how well their students are doing. They can find out which subjects or topics students find hard and need more help with.

Doctors and Hospitals

Healthcare professionals use data analytics to keep patients healthy. They can spot trends in patient data that might show if a disease is becoming more common or if a treatment is working well.

Sports Teams

Coaches and sports teams analyze data from games and practices to improve how they play. They can find out which strategies work best or how to help an athlete improve.

City Planners

People who plan and build things in cities, like roads and parks, use data analytics to make better decisions. They can understand where more buses or trains are needed, or where a new park might be best placed.

Farmers

Even farmers use data analytics to grow more food and keep their animals healthy. They can find out the best times to plant crops or how to use less water.

Frequently Asked Questions

Do I need to be good at math to do data analytics?

Not really. While having a basic understanding of math helps, many tools and software can do the complex math for you. It's more about understanding what the data is telling you.

Can small businesses benefit from data analytics?

Yes, absolutely. Even small businesses can use data analytics to understand their customers better, improve their products, and make smarter decisions. It doesn't have to be expensive or complicated.

How is data analytics different from data science?

Data analytics is mostly about analyzing past data to find insights and make better decisions. Data science goes deeper, using advanced techniques like machine learning to predict future trends and build new data-driven products.

Conclusion

Data analytics is like having a superpower that lets you see hidden patterns and insights in data. It's not just for tech giants or data wizards; it's something that businesses of all sizes, educators, healthcare professionals, and many others use to make smarter decisions and understand the world better. With the help of tools and technologies, anyone interested can dive into the world of data analytics to uncover valuable insights that drive better outcomes. Whether you're looking to improve your business, enhance your career, or just satisfy your curiosity, data analytics opens up a world of possibilities.

You can refer to our guided paths on the Coding Ninjas. You can check our course to learn more about DSADBMSCompetitive ProgrammingPythonJavaJavaScript, etc. 

Also, check out some of the Guided Paths on topics such as Data Structure and AlgorithmsCompetitive ProgrammingOperating SystemsComputer Networks, DBMSSystem Design, etc., as well as some Contests, Test Series, and Interview Experiences curated by top Industry Experts.

Live masterclass