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Table of contents
Types of Database languages
Data Definition Language (DDL)
Data manipulation language (DML)
Data control language (DCL)
Transaction Control Language(TCL)
Examples of database languages
Frequently Asked Questions
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Database Languages

Author Muskan Gupta
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DBMS - Database management systems
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DBMS(database management system) provides necessary database languages that allow users to express database updates, queries, and requests for data. There are various database languages to choose from, including SQL, the standard programming language for many databases. Database languages are divided into four sublanguages that perform different tasks.

You can visit the guided path of database management systems to learn more about DBMS and top 100 sql problems for sql problems.

In this blog, we will learn about the concept of Database Languages 

So, let's begin!

Also See, Schema in DBMS and Checkpoint in DBMS

Types of Database languages

The four types of Database languages and their uses are discussed below.

Types of Database Languages


Also See, Multiple Granularity in DBMS And Recursive Relationship in DBMS

Data Definition Language (DDL)

The database schema is defined using DDL. It's used to create tables, schemas, indexes, constraints, and other things, in a database. Let's see the operations that we can perform on the database using DDL:

CREATE: To create the database instance 

ALTER: To alter the structure of the database 

DROP: To drop database instances 

TRUNCATE: To delete tables in a database instance 

RENAME: To rename database instances 

DROP: To drop objects from a database such as tables 

Comment: To Comment 

Data manipulation language (DML)

Data manipulation language (DML) is a programming language that handles user requests and allows users to access and modify the data stored in databases. Some of its most typical functions are inserting, updating, and retrieving data from a database. The following is a list of DML statements:

INSERT: Adds new data to a database table that already exists.

UPDATE: Changes or updated values in the table

DELETE: Removes rows or records from a table.

SELECT: Data is retrieved from a table or multiple tables.

Data control language (DCL)

DCL (data control language) is a programming language that controls who has access to the data that users store in a database. Essentially, this language manages the database system's rights and permissions. It allows users to grant or revoke database privileges. The following is a list of DCL statements:

GRANT: This allows a user to access the database.

REVOKE: Removes a user's access to the database

Transaction Control Language(TCL)

TCL is used to perform or roll back the modifications we made to the database using DML commands.

COMMIT: To keep the database's modifications made by DML commands.

ROLLBACK: To roll back the modifications made to the database.

Check out this article - File System Vs DBMS

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Examples of database languages

Here are three examples of database languages and their uses :


Structured Query Language, or SQL, is one of the most well-known and long-running database languages. It includes data definition and data manipulation languages and the ability to write database queries. SQL is a programming language that allows you to retrieve and manipulate data from a relational database management system. This type of DBMS organizes data into groups called relations. Because SQL is the database language used by most relational databases, many professions in the IT industry may need employees to know it.


XQuery is a database language that lets you extract and manipulate data in XML forms, a type of data that can be shared over the internet. You can use XQuery to access and retrieve any XML-formatted data source. You can use XQuery to generate reports on data stored in an XML database, search for data in text documents on the web, and extract data for usage online.


The standard language for object-oriented databases, which describe data as variables, functions, or data structures, is OQL, which stands for Object Query Language. Companies that need to store vast amounts of complex data frequently use these databases. OQL allows to conduct queries and retrieve data in object databases like SQL does in relational databases.

Recommended Topic, B+ Tree in DBMS

Check this out:  R Programming language

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Which command is used to enable, disable, modify, or drop a constraint in SQL?
    The ALTER TABLE command can be used to add, delete, or alter columns in an existing table and add and remove different constraints.
  2. Properties of 'DELETE' and truncate' commands indicate that? 
    After the execution of 'DELETE' OPERATION, commit AND rollback statements can be performed to retrieve the lost data, while TRUNCATE does not allow it.
  3. What is the name of the language used by applications to request data from the DBMS?
    Statements in the Data Manipulation Language (DML) are used to manage data in a database.DML commands are not auto-committed. It means changes made by the DML command are not permanent to a database. It can be rolled back.
  4. Which keyword is used with Data Control Language (DCL) statements?
    GRANT is the keyword that is used with Data Control Language statements.
  5. When a transaction's execution is complete, it's said to be?
    Committed. It refers to a transaction that has completed its execution.


In this article, we have extensively discussed the concepts of database languages, and their uses are discussed and frequently asked questions. Database Language is a special type of programming language used to define and manipulate a database. A combination of DDL, DML, and DCL commands is implemented in the DBMS software.

Recommended Readings:

We hope that our blog has helped you enhance your knowledge regarding Database Languages and if you would like to learn more extra, check out our articles on DBMS. Do upvote our blog to help other ninjas grow. Happy Coding!

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