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Table of contents
Why Do We Need To Perform Database Testing
Difference Between Database Testing And UI Testing
Categories Of Database Testing
Attributes Of Database Testing
Database Testing Process
How Test Cases Are Written In Database Testing
Some Misconceptions Related To Database Testing
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Database Testing 
Key Takeaways
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024


Author Gunjan Ahuja
Leveraging ChatGPT - GenAI as a Microsoft Data Expert
Prerita Agarwal
Data Specialist @
23 Jul, 2024 @ 01:30 PM


Data is the lifeblood of any system, whether it's an application, a web service, or a system in the data center. It's what makes a system intelligent. It's what powers a system's functionality. When we think of data in a system, the first thing that probably comes to mind is the data model — the collection of data points that make up the system's state. 

Database testing is the process of checking the data and functions in a database to ensure that they work as intended and meet the needs of the business. The first step in database testing is to perform data validity and integrity testing, which ensures that the data is correct and fits the required format, such as providing accurate information recorded for each product. The next step is to perform performance checks, ensuring that the database performs as required in speed and capacity. Finally, the tester will perform tests on the procedures, triggers, and functions in the database to ensure they are working as intended.


Developers write code to capture the transaction details from the user and store the details in the database. The database is the store of truth, and the code is the cash register. To test that the cash register is working as expected, we need to test the application logic. In other words, we need to test the application logic that is stored in the application code.

Why Do We Need To Perform Database Testing

  • Testing of database backend has become easier with database testing frameworks. These frameworks make it easier to isolate the problem in the database backend. We can test the data at different levels with database testing, such as black, white, or grey. Black-box Testing is performed on the front-end, white box testing is performed on the data access layer, and grey box testing is performed on the database layer.
  • It helps maintain the ACID properties of the transactions. ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation & Durability.
  • It helps to keep the data mapping and integrity.
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Difference Between Database Testing And UI Testing

Following shows the difference between Database Testing and UI Testing.



Database testing is also known as data validation and integrity testing or backend testing. Database testing is done to check the data stored in the database.  User Interface (UI) testing or front-end testing is also called Application testing or GUI testing. It is performed on the front end of the application. 
Database testing involves testing backend components that are not visible to users.  UI testing is performed to check the functionalities of an application and its components like forms, graphs, menus, reports, etc. These forms are created using front-end development tools like, C#, Java, etc.; The tester needs to check how each function works on the user interface based on the input and expected output.
Database testing also involves checking stored procedures, views, schemas in the database, tables, indexes, keys, triggers, data validations, and data consistency checks. Database testing is performed to ensure that data is stored in the database correctly and consistently.  User Interface (UI) testing involves checking the look and feel of the application, such as the design and layout of buttons, forms, fields, images, and the overall theme. UI testing also includes navigation from one page to another and ensuring that the application behaves as expected.

A tester needs to understand database concepts like procedures and functions, views, indexes, keys, and good hands-on SQL. Also, it should automate DB tests as much as possible to minimize human error.


It requires a good understanding of the application's business requirements functionality, coding, and other technical skills. However, UI testing is often the first step in a testing process, so it can also be a good opportunity for non-technical testers to gain some exposure to the world of software development. 

Categories Of Database Testing

There are three types of database testing:

  • Structural Testing evaluates the logical design of the database and its structural elements, such as tables, fields, and records.
  • Functional Testing involves testing the functionality of the database as far as the user's point of view is concerned.
  • Non-Functional Testing certainly deals with the performance of the database only.

Attributes Of Database Testing

  • SCHEMA: Schema stands for structure. We will test the database schema or make the database schema as per the requirements. Therefore, we need to ensure whether its efficient and accurate and data is stored effectively.
  • TRIGGERS: This is an auto-generated instruction that will be executed whenever any event occurs in the table.
  • TRANSACTION: Whenever we access data to retrieve data, we call it a transaction. A transaction must follow the ACID properties.
  • PROCEDURE: It is the collection of one or more SQL statements to perform the task. Through this process, data validation and network traffic are reduced between the users and the database servers.

Database Testing Process

It's essential to perform database testing adequately. Otherwise, this is very evident that we might miss something that can impact the result and lead to no desired testing outputs.

Let's read and understand the process.

Database Testing Process                  

  • Environment Setup: This is the primary step. To perform testing, we need to set up an environment where we are going to perform the Testing.
  • Test Cases Generation: Once the domain is ready, we will jump onto the test cases generations. Here, indeed different transactions will be made related to the database.
  • Execution: The most crucial step is of executing the test cases. We will send inputs and match the outputs with the desired results. Here, the test cases are the ones that are designed for the testing process.
  • Analyzing Results: Once the execution is complete, the tester will check the results and mark the defects that are being noticed. Whether the input given has provided the desired output or not. The fetched results are analyzed in this phase.
  • Report the findings: After analyzing the results, the tester will share the report containing the flaws logged during the Testing with the developer.

How Test Cases Are Written In Database Testing

Following are the parameters that decide how to write a test case.

  • Objective: It must be decided at the very start what needs to be checked.
  • Input Method: In this, decide the input or the method of action that needs to be executed.
  • Expected Result: How the result appears in the database that's been tested in the expected result.

Some Misconceptions Related To Database Testing

There are some misconceptions related to database testing. Some of them are as follows:-

  • Extra work bottlenecks are added during the testing process
  • Added additional costs can lead to budget imbalance.
  • Requires additional time, which may lead to a delay in delivering the application.
  • It may lead to a requirement of experts for performing database testing.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Database Testing 

Database testing is very crucial. Testing has been done to meet the backend requirements and maintain the efficiency of data. Following are some of the advantages and disadvantages of database testing.


  • It helps to maintain the ACID properties.
  • It ensures database integrity.
  • Database mapping is supported.
  • Database testing helps ensure that the fetched output will be error-free and desired.
  • It reduces the complexity of the database.
  • It allows discovering bugs during the very start of the testing process.
  • It improves data security.


  • Automation can sometimes become costly.
  • A very well-designed and planned approach needs to be known for database testing.

Must Read, Locators in Selenium


  1. What is database testing?
    Database testing is the backend testing used to test databases, triggers, functions, and procedures to maintain data integrity and validity.
  2. What is being usually checked in database testing?
    The following is being checked:
    Stored procedures
    Checking of constraints
    Checking of field size
  3. What do you know about database stress testing?
    Database stress testing is the checking of databases under heavy load points. Here, it's validated whether under rich load system performs as expected or not.
  4. Name a few database transactions.
    Whenever data is retrieved or accessed in a database, it is undoubtedly called a transaction. Here are some of them: Commit, Rollback, Savepoint, etc.

Key Takeaways

This blog gives complete information about database testing. As database testing is a very crucial testing that not only checks the backend working of the system but also makes sure that validation of data is done every time the transaction or operation is being performed in the application. For cracking interviews, increasing the knowledge, and maintaining the basic ideas regarding this testing it's very necessary that these blogs should be read properly. Do attempt interview questions for more enhancement. 

There are many more types of testing that you must know; please do check more blogs like usability testing, performance testing, user acceptance testingblack box testing, etc. Feel free to upvote the blog.

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