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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
System Requirements
2.1.
Functional Requirements
2.2.
Non-functional Requirements
3.
Class Diagram
4.
Use Case Diagram
5.
Code in C++
5.1.
Code Output
5.2.
Code Explanation
6.
Frequently Asked Questions
6.1.
What is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?
6.2.
What are the benefits of using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in system design?
6.3.
In what types of systems and applications is Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) commonly used?
7.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
Medium

Design a Hotel Management System - Low Level Design

Author Suraj Pandey
2 upvotes
Master Python: Predicting weather forecasts
Speaker
Ashwin Goyal
Product Manager @

Introduction

A hotel management system is a software application that hotel owners and managers use to manage various operations in a hotel. The low-level design of a hotel management system refers to the detailed description of the system's architecture, components, and interfaces. This design phase is crucial as it lays the foundation for the development and implementation of the system. The low-level design should specify the requirements, data structures, algorithms, software components, and interaction between different modules.

illustrative diagram

Additionally, it should provide a clear understanding of the system's technical specifications and performance constraints. A low-level design aims to provide a comprehensive yet concise description of the system's architecture that serves as a blueprint for its development and implementation.

System Requirements

The requirements for a hotel management system are a combination of functional and non-functional requirements. These requirements help define the necessary capabilities and characteristics of the system to ensure its successful implementation and operation. In other words, they lay out what the system needs to be able to do and how well it needs to perform. The aim is to create a clear and comprehensive understanding of the system's needs and capabilities to guide its design and development.

Functional Requirements

The following are the functional requirements for the hotel management system:

  1. A system to manage hotels and their locations.
     
  2. A system to manage rooms in hotels.
     
  3. A system to manage guest room bookings.
     
  4. A system to manage account creation and authentication for different types of users.
     
  5. A system to manage housekeeping tasks for rooms.
     
  6. A system to manage charges and invoices for rooms.
     
  7. A system to manage room keys and their barcodes.
     
  8. A system to send notifications to different recipients.
     

It is crucial to note that these functional requirements are the foundation for successfully implementing and operating the hotel management system. They define the necessary capabilities and features that the system must possess to meet the business needs and requirements of the hotel. 

Non-functional Requirements

The following are the non-functional requirements for the hotel management system:

  1. The system should be secure and protect sensitive information such as passwords.
     
  2. The system should be reliable and always available for use.
     
  3. The system should be efficient and respond quickly to user requests.
     
  4. The system should be scalable and able to handle increased user traffic and data storage.
     
  5. The system should be flexible and allow for future updates and enhancements.
     
  6. The system should be user-friendly and easy to use for all types of users.
     
  7. The system should have a well-designed and intuitive user interface.
     
  8. The system should adequately handle and provide informative error messages.
     

It is important to note that these non-functional requirements are just as critical to the success of the hotel management system as the functional requirements. They define the characteristics and capabilities that the system must possess to provide a high-quality user experience and meet the hotel's specific needs. 

By clearly defining functional and non-functional requirements, it will be easier to design and develop a system that is efficient, effective, and aligned with the needs of the hotel.

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Class Diagram

A class diagram is a type of UML (Unified Modeling Language) diagram used to represent the structure of a system by showing classes, their attributes and methods, and the relationships between them.

Class diagrams are commonly used in object-oriented programming to help developers design and understand the structure of a system before it is implemented.

Class Diagram of Hotel Management System
Class Diagram of Hotel Management System

Use Case Diagram

A use case diagram is a visual representation of a system's functionalities and how they are used by actors. In other words, it's a diagram that describes the interactions between users (actors) and the system. A use case diagram typically consists of actors, use cases, and their relationships.

In the context of the Hotel Management System code, the use cases include booking a room, managing housekeeping, generating an invoice, and managing notifications. The actors in the system could be the guest, receptionist, housekeeping, and server. Relationships between actors and use cases are shown using arrows that point from the actors to the use cases they interact with.

For example, when booking a room, the actor would be the guest, and the use case would be "Book Room." The guest interacts with the system to book a room, which is shown using an arrow pointing from the guest actor to the "Book Room" use case.

Similarly, the housekeeping would interact with the system to manage housekeeping tasks. This interaction would be represented as an arrow pointing from the housekeeping actor to the "Manage Housekeeping" use case.

Use case diagrams provide a high-level view of a system and its functionalities, making it easier to understand how it works and the different scenarios in which it can be used.

Use Case Diagram of Hotel Management System

Code in C++

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;

// Hotel and HotelLocation class
class HotelLocation {
  private:
    string location;
    string address;
    int phoneNumber;
  public:
    HotelLocation(string location, string address, int phoneNumber) {
      this->location = location;
      this->address = address;
      this->phoneNumber = phoneNumber;
    }
    string getLocation() {
      return location;
    }
    string getAddress() {
      return address;
    }
    int getPhoneNumber() {
      return phoneNumber;
    }
};

class Hotel {
  private:
    vector<HotelLocation> locations;
    string name;
  public:
    Hotel(string name) {
      this->name = name;
    }
    void addLocation(HotelLocation location) {
      locations.push_back(location);
    }
    string getName() {
      return name;
    }
    vector<HotelLocation> getLocations() {
      return locations;
    }
};

class Room {
private:
  int roomNumber;
  string roomStyle;
  int bookingPrice;
public:
  Room() {}
  Room(int roomNumber, string roomStyle, int bookingPrice) {
    this->roomNumber = roomNumber;
    this->roomStyle = roomStyle;
    this->bookingPrice = bookingPrice;
  }
  int getRoomNumber() {
    return roomNumber;
  }
  string getRoomStyle() {
    return roomStyle;
  }
  int getBookingPrice() {
    return bookingPrice;
  }
};

// Account class
enum AccountType {
  GUEST,
  RECEPTIONIST,
  HOUSEKEEPING,
  SERVER
};

class Account {
private:
  string username;
  string password;
  AccountType type;
public:
  Account(string username, string password, AccountType type) {
    this->username = username;
    this->password = password;
    this->type = type;
  }
  string getUsername() {
    return username;
  }
  string getPassword() {
    return password;
  }
  AccountType getType() {
    return type;
  }
};

// RoomBooking class
class RoomBooking {
private:
  Room room;
  string guestName;
  int numberOfNights;
public:
  RoomBooking(Room room, string guestName, int numberOfNights) {
    this->room = room;
    this->guestName = guestName;
    this->numberOfNights = numberOfNights;
  }
  Room getRoom() {
    return room;
  }
  string getGuestName() {
    return guestName;
  }
  int getNumberOfNights() {
    return numberOfNights;
  }
};

// Notification class
class Notification {
private:
  string message;
  string recipient;
public:
  Notification(string message, string recipient) {
    this->message = message;
    this->recipient = recipient;
  }
  string getMessage() {
    return message;
  }
  string getRecipient() {
    return recipient;
  }
};

// RoomHouseKeeping class
class RoomHouseKeeping {
private:
  Room room;
  string date;
  string status;
public:
  RoomHouseKeeping(Room room, string date, string status) {
    this->room = room;
    this->date = date;
    this->status = status;
  }
  Room getRoom() {
    return room;
  }
  string getDate() {
    return date;
  }
  string getStatus() {
    return status;
  }
};

// RoomCharge class
class RoomCharge {
private:
  Room room;
  string chargeName;
  int chargeAmount;
public:
  RoomCharge(Room room, string chargeName, int chargeAmount) {
    this->room = room;
    this->chargeName = chargeName;
    this->chargeAmount = chargeAmount;
  }
  Room getRoom() {
    return room;
  }
  string getChargeName() {
    return chargeName;
  }
  int getChargeAmount() {
    return chargeAmount;
  }
};

// Invoice class
class Invoice {
private:
  Room room;
  vector<RoomCharge> charges;
public:
  Invoice(Room room, vector<RoomCharge> charges) {
    this->room = room;
    this->charges = charges;
  }
  Room getRoom() {
    return room;
  }
  vector<RoomCharge> getCharges() {
    return charges;
  }
};

// RoomKey class
class RoomKey {
private:
  Room room;
  int keyId;
  string barcode;
public:
  RoomKey(Room room, int keyId, string barcode) {
    this->room = room;
    this->keyId = keyId;
    this->barcode = barcode;
  }
  Room getRoom() {
    return room;
  }
  int getKeyId() {
    return keyId;
  }
  string getBarcode() {
    return barcode;
  }
};


int main() {
  // Create a Hotel object
  Hotel myHotel("The Sun Palace");

  // Add some locations to the hotel
  HotelLocation location1("Udaipur", "Street 1",9876543);
  HotelLocation location2("Jaipur", "Street 5", 7654321);
  myHotel.addLocation(location1);
  myHotel.addLocation(location2);

  // Get the name and locations of the hotel
  cout << "Hotel Name: " << myHotel.getName() << endl;
  cout << "Hotel Locations: " << endl;
  vector<HotelLocation> locations = myHotel.getLocations();
  for (int i = 0; i < locations.size(); i++) {
    cout << "Location: " << locations[i].getLocation() << endl;
    cout << "Address: " << locations[i].getAddress() << endl;
    cout << "Phone Number: " << locations[i].getPhoneNumber() << endl;
    cout << endl;
  }

  // Create a Room object
  Room room1(101, "Deluxe", 2500);

  // Create a RoomBooking object
  RoomBooking booking1(room1, "Suraj Pandey", 3);

  // Get the details of the RoomBooking
  cout << "Guest Name: " << booking1.getGuestName() << endl;
  cout << "Room Number: " << booking1.getRoom().getRoomNumber() << endl;
  cout << "Room Style: " << booking1.getRoom().getRoomStyle() << endl;
  cout << "Booking Price: " << booking1.getRoom().getBookingPrice() << endl;
  cout << "Number of Nights: " << booking1.getNumberOfNights() << endl;

  // Create a Notification object
  Notification notification1("Your booking has been confirmed.", "Suraj Pandey");

  // Get the details of the Notification
  cout << "Message: " << notification1.getMessage() << endl;
  cout << "Recipient: " << notification1.getRecipient() << endl;

  return 0;
}

Code Output

Hotel Name: The Sun Palace
Hotel Locations:
Location: Udaipur
Address: Street 1
Phone Number: 9876543

Location: Jaipur
Address: Street 5
Phone Number: 7654321

Guest Name: Suraj Pandey
Room Number: 101
Room Style: Deluxe
Booking Price: 2500
Number of Nights: 3
Message: Your booking has been confirmed.
Recipient: Suraj Pandey

Code Explanation

This code defines several classes for a hotel management system. The classes include

  • HotelLocation: Represents a hotel's location, with information such as location name, address, and phone number.
     
  • Hotel: Represents a hotel with information such as the hotel name and a list of its locations.
     
  • Room: Represents a hotel room with information such as room number, style, and booking price.
     
  • Account: Represents an account in the system with username, password, and account type information.
     
  • RoomBooking: Represents a booking made for a room, with information such as the room being booked, guest name, and the number of nights.
     
  • Notification: Represents a notification to be sent, with information such as message and recipient.
     
  • RoomHouseKeeping: Represents the housekeeping status of a room, with information such as the room, date, and status.
     
  • RoomCharge: Represents a charge to be added to a room, with information such as the room, charge name and charge amount.
     
  • Invoice: Represents an invoice for a room, with information such as the room and a list of charges.
     
  • RoomKey: Represents a room key with information such as the room, key id, and barcode.
     

All of the classes have getter methods for accessing their attributes, as well as constructors for setting their initial values.

Additionally, vectors have been incorporated to manage multiple instances of objects, such as rooms, bookings, charges, and keys, within a single class instance. This makes it possible to handle multiple bookings for different rooms, multiple charges for a single room, and so on, making the system more flexible and scalable.

Overall, the code serves as a solid foundation for anyone looking to build a hotel management system and provides a good understanding of how object-oriented programming can be applied to solve real-world problems.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?

SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) is a software design approach where services are provided to other components via communication over a network. It breaks down large systems into smaller, loosely-coupled components, promoting reuse, flexibility, scalability, and maintainability. SOA is often used in system design to support modularity and integration, making adding or modifying functionality easier without affecting the rest of the system.

What are the benefits of using Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) in system design?

SOA in system design offers benefits like,

Reusing services for efficient development and maintenance.

Flexible system with easier additions/modifications.

Scalable individual components.

Easy integration with other systems.

Modular and maintainable components.

In short, SOA enhances system design with improved efficiency, flexibility, scalability, integration, and modularity.

In what types of systems and applications is Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) commonly used?

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is used in various systems and applications, such as enterprise, cloud computing, web, mobile, and IoT systems, to provide a flexible and scalable architecture for integrating different components and services.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the low-level design of a hotel management system is a crucial aspect of its development and implementation. The design should provide a clear and comprehensive understanding of the system's architecture, components, and interfaces. The functional and non-functional requirements serve as the foundation for the design and development of the system and help to ensure that it meets the specific needs and requirements of the hotel. 

To know about Clean Architecture click here. 

A well-designed low-level design lays the foundation for a successful hotel management system that is efficient, effective, and easy to use. By taking the time to carefully define the functional and non-functional requirements and design the system accordingly, the hotel can be confident that its management system will meet its needs and provide a high-quality user experience.

With a solid understanding of the low-level design of a hotel management system, you can now tackle various system design problems asked in product-based companies. System Design is a valuable skill for those interested in pursuing careers in product-based companies.

You can consider our System Design Course to give your career an edge over others.

We highly value your feedback and thoughts, so please don't hesitate to share them in the comments section. We look forward to your engagement.

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