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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
System Requirements
2.1.
Functional Requirements for a Restaurant Management System
2.2.
Non-Functional Requirements for a Restaurant Management System
3.
Class Diagram
4.
Use Case Diagram
5.
Code in C++
5.1.
Code Explanation
6.
Frequently Asked Questions
6.1.
What is the role of testing and quality assurance in system design?
6.2.
How do you handle security and data privacy concerns in system design?
6.3.
What are some best practices for documentation and communication in system design?
7.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
Medium

Design a Restaurant Management system - Low Level Design

Author Suraj Pandey
1 upvote
Master Python: Predicting weather forecasts
Speaker
Ashwin Goyal
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Introduction

As the restaurant industry undergoes continuous changes to meet the dynamic needs of consumers; technology has become an indispensable component of restaurant management. A restaurant management system can significantly aid restaurant owners, and managers in streamlining their operations, enhancing efficiency, and improving overall customer experience.

Design a Restaurant Management system - Low Level Design

This blog post aims to thoroughly explore the low-level design of a restaurant management system, delving into its various components and features that make it a complex system. We will closely examine the functional and non-functional requirements of the system, allowing you to better understand how it functions and how it can be tailored to meet the unique needs of your restaurant.

Whether you are a novice or an experienced software developer seeking to broaden your skill set, this blog post will equip you with comprehensive insights into the low-level design of a Restaurant Management system and furnish you with the knowledge and tools necessary to design effective software systems. So, let us begin!

System Requirements

System requirements refer to the hardware, software, and other infrastructure needed to support a system. System requirements can be classified into two categories: functional and non-functional requirements. 

Functional requirements define the specific features and functions that the system must perform to meet the needs of its users. 

Non-functional requirements, on the other hand, specify performance characteristics of the system, such as scalability, reliability, security, and usability. 

Both types of requirements are critical to successfully designing and implementing a software system, and a thorough understanding of them is essential for any software developer.

Functional Requirements for a Restaurant Management System

Below are the functional requirements of a restaurant management system:

  1. The system should allow employees to be added to the restaurant with their names and job types.
     
  2. The system should allow the deactivation of employees, making them inactive in the system.
     
  3. The system should allow branches to be added to the restaurant with their location details.
     
  4. The system should allow menus to be created and added to the restaurant with their sections and items.
     
  5. The system should allow orders to be created and added to tables with details about the items and quantities ordered.
     
  6. The system should allow tables to be added to branches with their capacities and order history.
     
  7. The system should allow the deactivation of branches, making them inactive in the system.
     
  8. The system should allow the deactivation of tables, making them unavailable for orders.

Non-Functional Requirements for a Restaurant Management System

Below are the non-functional requirements of a restaurant management system:

  1. The system should be user-friendly and easy to navigate.
     
  2. The system should be secure, with appropriate access controls to ensure the confidentiality of sensitive data.
     
  3. The system should be reliable and stable, with minimal downtime or system failures.
     
  4. The system should be scalable, allowing more branches, employees, tables, menus, and orders to be added.
     
  5. The system should be compatible with different platforms and devices, ensuring accessibility to many users.
     
  6. The system should be responsive, with fast loading times and minimal lag.
     
  7. The system should be maintainable, allowing for easy updates and modifications to improve functionality and address issues.
     
  8. The system should be customizable, allowing for the addition of new features and functionalities to meet changing business requirements.
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Class Diagram

A class diagram is a visual representation of a software system's classes, interfaces, associations, and other structural and behavioral elements. It shows the relationships between classes and helps to understand and communicate the system's design.

Class Diagram of Restaurant Management System
Class Diagram of Restaurant Management System

For a more comprehensive understanding of class diagrams, please refer to the following link. It provides a detailed explanation and examples of how class diagrams can represent a software system's structure and behavior, as well as the relationships between its various components.

Use Case Diagram

A use case diagram is a visual representation of actors, use cases, and their relationships in a system. It provides an overview of the system's functionality and how users interact with it. It helps to identify the system's main features and serves as a starting point for system design and development.

Use Case Diagram of Restaurant Management System

In the context of a restaurant management system, the actors include the Receptionist, Waiter, and Manager, and the use cases include adding/modifying tables, searching for available tables, placing/updating orders, creating/canceling reservations, and checking in guests. The use case diagram for this system would show the actors and their interactions with the use cases, providing a clear understanding of the system's functionality.

For a more comprehensive understanding of use case diagrams, please refer to the following link. It provides a detailed explanation and examples of how use case diagrams can be used to represent the different ways that users can interact with a system, as well as the actors involved in the system.

Code in C++

#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <string>

class Employee {
private:
    std::string name;
    std::string address;
    std::string phone_number;
public:
    Employee(std::string name, std::string address, std::string phone_number) : name(name), address(address), phone_number(phone_number) {}
    virtual ~Employee() {}
};

class MenuItem {
private:
    std::string name;
    double price;
public:
    MenuItem(std::string name, double price) : name(name), price(price) {}
    double getPrice() const { return price; }
    virtual ~MenuItem() {}
    std::string getName() const {
        return name;
    }
};

class MenuSection {
private:
    std::vector<MenuItem*> items;
public:
    // Function to add a new menu item to the section
    void addItem(MenuItem* item) {
        items.push_back(item);
    }

    // Getter function for items
    std::vector<MenuItem*>& getItems() {
        return items;
    }
    virtual ~MenuSection() {}
};

class Restaurant {
private:
    std::vector<Employee*> employees;
    bool active;
public:
    Restaurant() : active(true) {}
    virtual ~Restaurant() {}
    void deactivate() { active = false; }
};

class Menu {
private:
    std::vector<MenuSection*> sections;
public:
    // Function to add a new menu section to the menu
    void addSection(MenuSection* section) {
        sections.push_back(section);
    }

    // Getter function for sections
    std::vector<MenuSection*>& getSections() {
        return sections;
    }
    virtual ~Menu() {}
};

class TableSeat {
private:
    int number;
public:
    TableSeat(int number) : number(number) {}
    virtual ~TableSeat() {}
};

class Table {
private:
    std::string id;
    int max_capacity;
    std::vector<TableSeat*> seats;
public:
    Table(std::string id, int max_capacity) : id(id), max_capacity(max_capacity) {}
    void addSeat(TableSeat* seat) {
        seats.push_back(seat);
    }
    virtual ~Table() {}
};

class Branch {
private:
    std::vector<Employee*> employees;
    std::vector<Menu*> menus;
    std::vector<Table*> tables;
public:
    const std::vector<Employee*>& getEmployees() const {
        return employees;
    }
    void addEmployee(Employee* employee) {
        employees.push_back(employee);
    }
    std::vector<Menu*>& getMenus() {
        return menus;
    }
    // Function to add a new menu to the branch
    void addMenu(Menu* menu) {
        menus.push_back(menu);
    }
    void addTable(Table* table) {
        tables.push_back(table);
    }
    virtual ~Branch() {}
};

class MealItem {
private:
    MenuItem* item;
    int quantity;
public:
    MealItem(MenuItem* item, int quantity) : item(item), quantity(quantity) {}
    virtual ~MealItem() {}

    MenuItem* getItem() const {
        return item;
    }
    int getQuantity() const { return quantity; }
  
};

class Meal {
private:
    std::vector<MealItem*> items;
public:
    void addItem(MenuItem* item, int quantity) {
        MealItem* mealItem = new MealItem(item, quantity);
        items.push_back(mealItem);
    }
    void addItem(MealItem* item) {
        items.push_back(item);
    }
    virtual ~Meal() {}
};

class Order {
private:
    std::vector<Meal*> meals;
public:
    void addMeal(Meal* meal) {
        meals.push_back(meal);
    }
    virtual ~Order() {}
};

class Account {
private:
    std::string username;
    std::string password;
public:
    Account(std::string username, std::string password) : username(username), password(password) {}
    virtual ~Account() {}
};

class Receptionist : public Account {
public:
    Receptionist(std::string username, std::string password) : Account(username, password) {}
    virtual ~Receptionist() {}
    void searchAndReserveTable() { /* implementation */ }
};

class Waiter : public Account {
public:
    Waiter(std::string username, std::string password) : Account(username, password) {}
    virtual ~Waiter() {}
    void placeOrder() { /* implementation */ }
};

class Notification {
public:
    void sendNotification() { /* implementation */ }
};

class BillItem {
private:
    MealItem* meal_item;
    double price;
public:
    BillItem(MealItem* meal_item, double price) : meal_item(meal_item), price(price) {}
    BillItem(MealItem* meal_item) : meal_item(meal_item), price(meal_item->getItem()->getPrice() * meal_item->getQuantity()) {}
    virtual ~BillItem() {}
    MenuItem* getItem() {
        return meal_item->getItem();
    }
    int getQuantity() {
        return meal_item->getQuantity();
    }
    MealItem* getMealItem() const { return meal_item; }
    double getTotal() const { return price; }
};

class Bill {
public:
    std::vector<BillItem*> items;

    void addItem(BillItem* item) {
        items.push_back(item);
    }

    double getTotal() const {
        double total = 0.0;
        for (BillItem* item : items) {
            total += item->getTotal();
        }
        return total;
    }

    virtual ~Bill() {}
};


int main() {
    // create a new restaurant
    Restaurant restaurant;

    // create a new branch for the restaurant
    Branch branch;

    // create some employees for the branch
    Employee* employee1 = new Employee("John Doe", "123 Main St", "555-1234");
    branch.addEmployee(employee1);
    Employee* employee2 = new Employee("Jane Smith", "456 Elm St", "555-5678");
    branch.addEmployee(employee2);

    // create a menu for the branch
    Menu* menu = new Menu();
    branch.addMenu(menu);

    // create some menu sections and items
    MenuSection* section1 = new MenuSection();
    menu->addSection(section1);
    MenuItem* item1 = new MenuItem("Steak", 19.99);
    section1->addItem(item1);
    MenuItem* item2 = new MenuItem("Salad", 9.99);
    section1->addItem(item2);

    MenuSection* section2 = new MenuSection();
    menu->addSection(section2);
    MenuItem* item3 = new MenuItem("Pasta", 14.99);
    section2->addItem(item3);

    // create some tables for the branch
    Table* table1 = new Table("T1", 4);
    branch.addTable(table1);
    TableSeat* seat1 = new TableSeat(1);
    table1->addSeat(seat1);
    TableSeat* seat2 = new TableSeat(2);
    table1->addSeat(seat2);

    Table* table2 = new Table("T2", 6);
    branch.addTable(table2);
    TableSeat* seat3 = new TableSeat(1);
    table2->addSeat(seat3);
    TableSeat* seat4 = new TableSeat(2);
    table2->addSeat(seat4);
    TableSeat* seat5 = new TableSeat(3);
    table2->addSeat(seat5);

    // create an order for a table
    Order* order = new Order();
    /// create a meal for each seat at the table
    Meal* meal1 = new Meal();
    order->addMeal(meal1);
    Meal* meal2 = new Meal();
    order->addMeal(meal2);

    // add some meal items to the meals
    MealItem* meal_item1 = new MealItem(item1, 2);
    meal1->addItem(meal_item1);
    MealItem* meal_item2 = new MealItem(item3, 1);
    meal2->addItem(meal_item2);


    // create an account for the receptionist
    Receptionist* receptionist = new Receptionist("receptionist", "password");

    // create an account for the waiter
    Waiter* waiter = new Waiter("waiter", "password");

    // send a notification to the customer
    Notification notification;
    notification.sendNotification();

    // generate a bill for the order
    Bill* bill = new Bill();
    BillItem* bill_item1 = new BillItem(meal_item1, meal_item1->getItem()->getPrice() * meal_item1->getQuantity());
    bill->addItem(bill_item1);
    BillItem* bill_item2 = new BillItem(meal_item2, meal_item2->getItem()->getPrice() * meal_item2->getQuantity());
    bill->addItem(bill_item2);

    // print the bill
    std::cout << "Bill for order:" << std::endl;
    std::cout << "-----------------" << std::endl;
    for (BillItem* item : bill->items) {
        std::cout << item->getMealItem()->getItem()->getName() << " x " << item->getMealItem()->getQuantity()
                << " = Rs" << item->getTotal() << std::endl;
    }



    std::cout << "-----------------" << std::endl;
    std::cout << "Total: Rs" << bill->getTotal() << std::endl;

    // clean up memory
    delete employee1;
    delete employee2;
    delete menu;
    delete section1;
    delete section2;
    delete item1;
    delete item2;
    delete item3;
    delete table1;
    delete table2;
    delete seat1;
    delete seat2;
    delete seat3;
    delete seat4;
    delete seat5;
    delete order;
    delete meal1;
    delete meal2;
    delete meal_item1;
    delete meal_item2;
    delete receptionist;
    delete waiter;
    delete bill;
    delete bill_item1;
    delete bill_item2;

    return 0;
}

Output

Bill for order:
-----------------
Steak x 2 = Rs39.98
Pasta x 1 = Rs14.99
-----------------
Total: Rs54.97

Code Explanation

The code defines various classes that could be used to implement a restaurant management system. 

These classes include Employee, MenuItem, MenuSection, Restaurant, Menu, TableSeat, Table, Branch, MealItem, Meal, Order, Account, Receptionist, Waiter, Notification, BillItem, and Bill.

  • The Employee class defines the basic properties of an employee, including their name, address, and phone number. 
     
  • The MenuItem class defines a menu item with a name and price. 
     
  • The MenuSection class groups together related menu items and the Menu class represents a complete menu with multiple sections. 
     
  • The Restaurant class represents the overall restaurant, with a list of employees and a boolean flag to indicate whether the restaurant is currently active.
     
  • The TableSeat and Table classes define the physical tables in the restaurant, with each table having a unique ID, a maximum capacity, and a list of seats. 
     
  • The Branch class represents a specific restaurant location with a list of employees, menus, and tables.
     
  • The MealItem class represents a single item on a customer's meal, with a pointer to a MenuItem and a quantity. 
     
  • The Meal class represents a complete meal with multiple items. 
     
  • The Order class represents a customer's order with a list of meals.
     
  • The Account class represents a user account with a username and password. 
     
  • The Receptionist and Waiter classes are specific types of accounts, each with its own set of functions for managing restaurant reservations and orders. 
     
  • The Notification class represents a notification that could be sent to a user.
     
  • The BillItem class represents a single item on a customer's bill, with a pointer to a MealItem and a total price. 
     
  • The Bill class represents a complete bill with multiple items.
     

Overall, this code provides a basic framework for building a restaurant management system, although some additional implementation details would be required to create a fully functional system.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the role of testing and quality assurance in system design?

Testing and quality assurance play a critical role in system design as they help ensure that the system is functioning as intended and meets the requirements of its users. Testing can identify and address any bugs or errors in the system, while quality assurance ensures the system is built to a high-quality standard.

How do you handle security and data privacy concerns in system design?

Security and data privacy concerns are essential considerations in system design. It is important to incorporate security measures such as encryption and access controls and adhere to data privacy regulations such as GDPR or HIPAA.

What are some best practices for documentation and communication in system design?

Best practices for documentation and communication in system design include maintaining clear and concise documentation throughout the design process, using clear and consistent language, visual aids, and regular check-ins and updates to ensure effective communication with stakeholders, team members, and users.

Conclusion

In conclusion, a restaurant management system is a critical tool that every restaurant owner should consider having. It simplifies the restaurant's day-to-day operations, including table management, menu creation, and management, order tracking, inventory management, and sales reporting.

To develop an effective restaurant management system, one must consider functional and non-functional requirements. Functional requirements include table management, order management, menu management, and inventory management. Non-functional requirements include security, reliability, usability, and scalability.

A class diagram is essential in designing a restaurant management system, as it helps to identify the classes, attributes, and relationships between the different objects in the system. A use case diagram also plays a critical role in identifying the various actions that the system should perform.

When it comes to developing the system, the code should be well-structured and follow industry standards. The code output should be tested to ensure it meets the system's functional and non-functional requirements.

In summary, a well-designed and developed restaurant management system can help restaurant owners streamline their operations, improve efficiency, and ultimately increase profitability.

You can also consider our System Design Course to give your career an edge over others.

We welcome your feedback and insights in the comments section below and wish you all the best in your system design endeavors.

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