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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Basic DevOps Interview Questions
2.1.
1. What do you know about DevOps?
2.2.
2. Who is a DevOps engineer?
2.3.
3. What is the need for DevOps?
2.4.
4. What are the fundamental differences between DevOps & Agile?
2.5.
5. What are the types of HTTP requests?
2.6.
6. What are the three important DevOps KPIs?
2.7.
7. What are the advantages of DevOps?
2.8.
8. Why has DevOps gained popularity over the past few years?
2.9.
9. What is configuration management?
2.10.
10. What is SSH's purpose?
2.11.
11. What is the significance of DevOps configuration management?
2.12.
12. In DevOps, what does CAMS stand for?
3.
Intermediate-Level DevOps Interview Questions
3.1.
13. What are the various stages of DevOps?
3.2.
14. Could you explain what Memcached is?
3.3.
15. What are the reasons why Memcached should not be used?
3.4.
16. How does Nagios function?
3.5.
17. What are Nagios Plugins?
3.6.
18. Explain why we need Plugins once you've defined them.
3.7.
19. What does it mean when you say Nagios is object-oriented?
3.8.
20. What are the most widely used DevOps tools?
3.9.
21. What do you know about the DevOps pipeline?
3.10.
22. What is the role of AWS in DevOps?
3.11.
23. What are the anti-patterns in DevOps?
3.12.
24. Explain the “Shift left to reduce failure” concept in DevOps?
3.13.
25. Name a few useful network monitoring tools.
3.14.
26. What is the relationship between all DevOps tools?
4.
Advanced-Level DevOps Interview Questions
4.1.
27. Describe the Blue-Green Deployment Method.
4.2.
28. What's the difference between a rolling and a blue/green deployment?
4.3.
29. What Does High Availability (HA) Mean?
4.4.
30. What exactly is CBD?
4.5.
31. Can you explain the architecture of Jenkins?
4.6.
32. What is the Dogpile Effect? What can you do to avoid this?
4.7.
33. What Is Sticky Session Load Balancing? What Does "Session Affinity" Mean?
4.8.
34. What are the drawbacks of sticky sessions?
4.9.
35. What do you know about DevOps post mortem meetings?
4.10.
36. What does sudo mean in the Linux operating system?
4.11.
37. How is DevOps different from the Agile Methodology?
4.12.
38. What is the easy way to create a tiny cloud?
4.13.
39. What are your thoughts on the serverless model?
4.14.
40. What types of apps are better suited to Docker Container: stateless or stateful?
5.
Frequently Asked Questions
5.1.
Is DevOps easy or difficult?
5.2.
How do I prepare for a DevOps interview?
5.3.
What are the concepts of DevOps interview? 
5.4.
What are types of DevOps?  
6.
Conclusion
Last Updated: May 28, 2024
Medium

DevOps Interview Questions

Author SHIVANGI MALL
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Ashwin Goyal
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18 Jun, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

Introduction

DevOps refers to the combination of development and operations. It's a software engineering practice that focuses on bringing together the development and operations teams with the goal of automating the project at all levels. This approach makes it simple to automate project service management so that operational goals can be met and the technology stack utilized in the production environment can be better understood.

This strategy is based on  Agile methodology and stresses team collaboration, resource management, and communication. The primary advantages of employing this structure are the speed of development and resolution of problems at the production environment level, the stability of applications, and the creativity involved.

devops interview questions

In this blog, we will discuss some of the most commonly asked Devops interview questions and their answers. The blog has been separated into three sections, beginnerintermediate, and advanced, so let's get started.

Basic DevOps Interview Questions

This category will contain questions that aren't exclusive to any DevOps step. Rather than focusing on a specific tool or stage, the questions here are aimed to evaluate your comprehension of DevOps.

1. What do you know about DevOps?

Answer: In a product development process, DevOps is the grey area between development (Dev) and operations (Ops) teams. DevOps is a culture that emphasizes communication, integration, and cooperation throughout the product development cycle. As a result, it breaks down barriers between software development and operations teams, allowing them to focus on delivering products quickly and consistently.

2. Who is a DevOps engineer?

Answer: A DevOps engineer collaborates with software developers and IT personnel to guarantee that code releases go well. Developers with an interest in the deployment and operations domain, as well as system administrators with a coding enthusiasm who want to go into development.

To summarise, a DevOps engineer is someone who is familiar with the SDLC (Software Building Lifecycle) and automation technologies for the development of CI/CD pipelines.

3. What is the need for DevOps?

Answer: This response, in my opinion, should begin by describing the general market trend. Rather than providing large sets of features, firms are experimenting with how modest features might be delivered to customers via a succession of release trains. This has a number of benefits, including quicker customer feedback, higher software quality, and more customer happiness. Companies must do the following to achieve this:

  • Increase deployment frequency
  • The lower failure rate of new releases
  • Shortened lead time between fixes
  • In the event of a new release crashing, the meantime to recovery will be shorter.

4. What are the fundamental differences between DevOps & Agile?

Answer: In the table below, the distinctions between the two are listed.

Features DevOpsAgile
AgilityAgility in both Development & OperationsAgility in only Development
Processes/ PracticesInvolves processes such as CI, CD, CT, etc.Involves practices such as Agile Scrum, Agile Kanban, etc.
Key Focus AreaTimeliness & quality have equal priorityTimeliness is the main priority
Release Cycles/ Development SprintsSmaller release cycles with immediate feedbackSmaller release cycles
Source of FeedbackFeedback is from self (Monitoring tools)Feedback is from customers
Scope of WorkAgility & need for AutomationAgility only

5. What are the types of HTTP requests?

Answer: The types of HTTP requests are

  • GET
  • HEAD
  • PUT
  • POST
  • PATCH
  • DELETE
  • TRACE
  • CONNECT
  • OPTIONS

6. What are the three important DevOps KPIs?

Answer: The following are some DevOps KPIs:

  • Reduce the average time it takes to recover from a failure.
  • Increase the frequency with which deployments take place.
  • Reduced Percentage of deployments that fail

7. What are the advantages of DevOps?

Answer: Some advantages of DevOps are given below

Technical benefits

  • Continuous software delivery
  • Less complex problems to manage
  • Early detection and faster correction of defects
     

Business benefits

  • Faster delivery of features
  • Stable operating environments
  • Collaboration and communication between teams have improved.

8. Why has DevOps gained popularity over the past few years?

Answer: DevOps is in high demand in today's economy, and many companies are keen to invest in DevOps personnel. As every significant sector hopes to see some automation in the coming years, some of the largest multi-national organizations, such as Facebook and Netflix, are spending money and time on DevOps for automation and to pace up application rollout. It aids businesses in extending and growing their operations in order to generate big revenue. Its popularity continues to rise in demand as tech rivalry grows as more organizations adopt DevOps practices; as a result, competitors must invest in similar or better development practices, raising demand.

With its new technology standards, DevOps implementation has produced demonstrable outcomes in firms that contend with better efficiency; tech professionals can deploy codes faster than ever before and with fewer errors. As a result, more consumers and organizations rely on cloud software since it demands quick deployments to fulfil customer needs without disrupting services; this has resulted in increased user adoption of cloud software such as DevOps over time.

9. What is configuration management?

Answer: Configuration management (CM) is the practice of dealing with changes in such a way that the integrity of the system is preserved throughout time. This includes rules, approaches, procedures, and tools for analyzing, managing, and tracking change proposals, as well as maintaining necessary documentation.

CM assists with administrative and technical directives for the appreciation's design and development.

10. What is SSH's purpose?

Answer: Secure Shell, or SSH, is a command-line protocol that allows users to connect to and administer remote servers over the Internet.

SSH is an encrypted version of Telnet, which was previously insecure and unencrypted. All communication with the remote server is now encrypted.

SSH includes remote user authentication, input communication between the client and the host, and client output delivery.

11. What is the significance of DevOps configuration management?

Answer: Configuration management (CM) assists the team in automating time-consuming and repetitive tasks, improving the organization's performance and agility.

By utilizing design streamlining, extensive documenting, control, and change implementation throughout the project's numerous phases/releases, also helps to ensure that the product development process is consistent and improved.

12. In DevOps, what does CAMS stand for?

Answer: CultureAutomationMeasurement, and Sharing are the acronyms for CAMS. It represents DevOps' core actions.

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Intermediate-Level DevOps Interview Questions

This category will include questions that are related to plugins, and job-based, tools.

13. What are the various stages of DevOps?

Answer: DevOps can be divided into six stages. Its phases follow a set pattern. However, there are no boundaries between the stages, and no phase begins until the previous one has finished fully. Let's look at the DevOps cycle phase in more detail.

1. Planning
The initial part of the DevOps lifecycle includes planning and software development. This phase entails thoroughly comprehending the project in order to achieve the members' final work goal. This also feeds the various development and operations phases. It's also critical that organizations receive training on tools and metrics, so that project management is clear.

2. Development

The project is constructed during this phase by creating infrastructure, writing software, defining tests, or automating processes. Evidence is crucial at this stage. Developers save programs in code managers for managing applications and data activities, which enables viewing, versioning, and much more.

3. Continuous Integration

This step automates the validation and testing mechanisms. This has a unique feature that ensures that the development environment is properly configured before being released in a service that combines it with the other apps.

4. Automated Deployment

DevOps encourages the use of tools and scripts to automate deployments, with the ultimate objective of automating the entire process with the activation of a feature. The arrival of the cloud, as a code that forces a move from finite infrastructure management to permanent cost optimization management, is the essential component of this phase.

5. Operations

All DevOps operations are often performed constantly throughout the life of software due to the dynamic nature of the infrastructure. Transformation, availability, and scalability are all possible with this platform.

6. Monitoring

This stage of the DevOps process is permanent. DevOps keeps track of and analyses data that shows the application's present state.

14. Could you explain what Memcached is?

Answer: Memcached is an open-source and free, high-performance, distributed, and generic in-memory object caching system. It's most commonly utilized to boost the performance of dynamic web applications by reducing database load.

Memcached is useful in the following situations:

  • Caching of profiles on social networking sites like Facebook.
     
  • Caching of the web pages in the content aggregation domain.
     
  • Ad targeting domain profile tracking
     
  • Session caching is used in the e-commerce, gaming, and entertainment domains.
     
  • In the sphere of location based services, database query optimization and scaling are important.
     

Memcached's Advantages:

  • Memcached improves application performance by lowering database hits and I/O usage.
     
  • It assists in determining which actions are performed more frequently and what to cache.
     

Some of the disadvantages of using Memcached are as follows:

  • Because it is neither a persistent data store nor a database, the data is lost in the event of a failure.
     
  • It's not a cache for certain applications.
     
  • Large items are not cacheable.
     
  • The branch name serves as the task key.
     
  • It's easy to tell which work is covered in which branch by naming the branch after the task.

15. What are the reasons why Memcached should not be used?

Answer: Some of the reasons not to use Memcached are given below:

  • Memcached is often mistaken for a data store rather than a cache.
     
  • Never rely on Memcached alone to gather the data you need to execute your project. A different source of data should always be available.
     
  • You can't query the data or iterate over the contents to extract information because Memcached is solely a key-value store.
     
  • There are no encryption or authentication mechanisms in Memcached.

16. How does Nagios function?

Answer: For this solution, I recommend that you read the following explanation:

Nagios is often run as a daemon or service on a server. Nagios runs plugins on the same server on a regular basis, contacting hosts or servers on your network or the Internet. The web interface can be used to view status information. If something happens, you can also be notified via email or SMS.

The Nagios daemon works like a scheduler, executing scripts at specific times. It saves the output of those scripts and runs new ones if the output changes.

17. What are Nagios Plugins?

Answer: They're command-line scripts (Perl scripts, Shell scripts, and so on) that verify the status of a host or service. The current status of hosts and services on your network is determined by Nagios using the results from Plugins.

18. Explain why we need Plugins once you've defined them.

Answer: When Nagios wants to check a host's or service's status, it will run a Plugin. The plugin will run the test and then return the results to Nagios. The results from the Plugin will be processed by Nagios, and the relevant actions will be taken.

19. What does it mean when you say Nagios is object-oriented?

Answer: The answer to this question is straightforward. "One of the advantages of Nagios is object configuration format, which allows you to build object definitions that inherit properties from other object definitions, hence the name," I'll respond. This explains and simplifies the connections between the various components."

20. What are the most widely used DevOps tools?

Answer: Some of the most popular DevOps tools are:-

  • Selenium
  • Puppet
  • Chef
  • Git
  • Jenkins
  • Ansible
  • Docker

21. What do you know about the DevOps pipeline?

Answer: DevOps pipeline is a continuous integration, delivery, and software deployment are made possible through an automated procedure. It includes phases like continuous integration, testing, build automation, deployment, and monitoring. The pipeline streamlines development while guaranteeing code quality, consistency, and quick delivery—essential tenets of contemporary software development processes.

22. What is the role of AWS in DevOps?

Answer: AWS (Amazon Web Services) plays a pivotal role in DevOps by providing a robust cloud platform. It provides services for networking, databases, storage, computing, and other areas. AWS is used by DevOps teams to create, launch, and grow applications, improving the speed, dependability, and effectiveness of software development and delivery procedures.

23. What are the anti-patterns in DevOps?

Answer: DevOps anti-patterns are inefficient behaviors that prevent effective development and deployment. Among them are segregated teams, a lack of automation, a disregard for feedback, and manual intervention. These procedures hinder communication between parties, bog down operations, and go against the fundamental ideas of continuous integration and continuous delivery.

24. Explain the “Shift left to reduce failure” concept in DevOps?

Answer: In DevOps, "shift left" refers to bringing testing and security audits earlier in the development cycle. As problems are identified and resolved earlier, the risk of errors and failures in later stages decreases, improving the development pipeline's efficiency and dependability.

25. Name a few useful network monitoring tools.

Answer: Some of the most popular network monitoring tools include:

  • Splunk
  • Icinga 2
  • Wireshark
  • Nagios
  • OpenNMS

26. What is the relationship between all DevOps tools?

Answer: A generic logical flow is shown below, in which everything is automated for flawless delivery. However, depending on the requirements, this flow may differ from one business to the next.

  • Developers create the code, which is then controlled using Version Control System tools such as Git.
     
  • The code is sent to the Git repository by the developers, and any modifications made to the code are committed to this repository.
     
  • Jenkins uses the Git plugin to pull this code from the repository and builds it with Ant or Maven.
     
  • Puppet and other configuration management technologies deploy and provision testing environments, and Jenkins then distributes this code to the test environment, where it is tested with tools like Selenium.
     
  • Jenkins sends the code to the production server after it has been tested (even the production server is provisioned & maintained by tools like Puppet).
     
  • It is regularly monitored after deployment using tools like Nagios.
     
  • Docker containers provide a testing environment for building features to be tested.

Advanced-Level DevOps Interview Questions

DevOps Interview Questions and Answers will be included in this category, which will contain advanced-level DevOps Interview questions. Examine all of the questions to improve your chances of succeeding in the interviews.

27. Describe the Blue-Green Deployment Method.

Answer: Blue-green deployment is a technique for reducing downtime and risk by using two identical production environments, Blue and Green. At any one time, only one of the environments is active, with the active environment handling all production traffic. Blue is currently active, whereas Green is currently inactive.

As you create a new version of your program, deployment and final testing take occur in a non-live environment, such as Green in this case. We switch the router so that all incoming requests now flow to Green instead of Blue once you've deployed and completely tested the software in Green. Green is currently active, whereas Blue is dormant.

This method can avoid application deployment downtime. Furthermore, blue-green deployment reduces risk: if something goes wrong with your new version on Green, you can switch back to Blue and roll back to the previous version.

28. What's the difference between a rolling and a blue/green deployment?

Answer: You have TWO full environments in Blue-Green Deployment. One is the current Blue environment, and the other is the Green environment to which you wish to upgrade. When you go from blue to green, the traffic is redirected to your new green environment. You can save your old blue environment as a backup until the green environment is formed.

As in Rolling Deployment, there is only ONE complete environment. The code is deployed in a subset of the same environment's instances before being relocated to another subset.

29. What Does High Availability (HA) Mean?

Answer: The ability of the application user to access the system is defined as availability. If a user is unable to access the application, it is considered unavailable. The term "high availability" refers to the application's continuous availability. Using redundant server nodes in conjunction with clustering is a common approach to improve online application availability.

Availability is sometimes represented as a percentage of annual uptime.

30. What exactly is CBD?

Answer: Component-Based Creation, or CBD, is a novel approach to product development. Instead of starting from scratch, developers use this strategy to compose and integrate existing well-defined, tested, and confirmed components into a product.

Also Read, SAP FICO Interview Questions

31. Can you explain the architecture of Jenkins?

Answer: Jenkins use master-slave architecture. The master node oversees the distribution, scheduling, and monitoring of jobs. Dealing with the actual job execution are slave nodes. Using communication, the master distributes tasks to the slaves for concurrent execution. Add-ons increase functionality. Jenkins provides scalability and flexibility for automating multiple software development stages.

32. What is the Dogpile Effect? What can you do to avoid this?

Answer: When a cache expires, websites are attacked by several requests sent by the client at the same time, which is known as the dogpile effect. A semaphore lock can be used to prevent this effect. When the value in this system expires, the first process takes over the lock and begins creating fresh value.

33. What Is Sticky Session Load Balancing? What Does "Session Affinity" Mean?

Answer: Another prominent load balancing strategy is sticky session or session affinity, which requires a user session to be served by an assigned computer at all times.

In a load-balanced server application that keeps user information in sessions, it will be important to keep session data available to all computers. This can be avoided by providing a user session request from a single machine at all times. As soon as a session is created, the machine is associated with it. All requests in a given session are always forwarded to the machine connected with it. This ensures that user data is only stored on one system and that load is distributed evenly.

The SessionId cookie is commonly used for this. The cookie is provided to the client during the first request, and it must be present in every subsequent request by the client to identify the session.

34. What are the drawbacks of sticky sessions?

Answer: There are a couple of potential drawbacks with this method.

  • Your load balancer won't be able to tell if a request belongs to a session if the client browser doesn't support cookies. Users who do not utilize cookie-based browsers may experience weird behaviour as a result of this.
     
  • The user information (served by that machine) will be lost if one of the machines fails or goes down, and there will be no means to recover the user session.

35. What do you know about DevOps post mortem meetings?

Answer: Post-mortem sessions are held to discuss what went wrong throughout the DevOps implementation process. The team is required to come up with initiatives that need to be made in order to avoid future failures at this conference.

36. What does sudo mean in the Linux operating system?

Answer: The superuser is the Linux root user, and sudo stands for superuser do.' It is a tool for Linux/Unix-based systems that allows users with superuser roles to use root-level system commands.

37. How is DevOps different from the Agile Methodology?

Answer: DevOps supports continuous integration and delivery while focusing on communication between development and operations teams. A more comprehensive technique, agile places a focus on iterative development and client input. DevOps largely focuses on deployment and operational issues, enabling seamless delivery and maintenance. Agile works with the full software development lifecycle.

38. What is the easy way to create a tiny cloud?

Answer: VMfres is one of the most efficient ways to quickly create an IaaS cloud from Virtual Box VMs. Dokku is an excellent choice if you need a lightweight PaaS because bash scripts may be used as PaaS in Dokku containers.

39. What are your thoughts on the serverless model?

Answer: The term "serverless" refers to an architecture in which developers are unaware of the existence of servers. It means you won't have to worry about capacity, deployments, scaling, fault tolerance, or the operating system. It will effectively reduce maintenance work and allow developers to focus more on code development.

40. What types of apps are better suited to Docker Container: stateless or stateful?

Answer: For Docker Container, it is advisable to design stateless applications. We can make a container out of our application and remove the state parameters that are adjustable. We may now run the same container with varied parameters in both Production and QA environments. This enables us to reuse the same image in multiple contexts. Furthermore, a stateless application scales far more easily with Docker Containers than a stateful application.

Frequently Asked Questions

Is DevOps easy or difficult?

DevOps is a philosophy, and when philosophy is turned into a job, it's not going to be simple. To meet these issues, a DevOps engineer must be multifaceted and polyvalent, and while versatility is challenging nowadays, we need cross-functional teams (and/or feature teams). 

How do I prepare for a DevOps interview?

DevOps is a tough tech which takes significant time to master. To prepare for a DevOps interview, you should be familiar with its principles, such as automation, collaboration, CI/CD, IAC, etc. Further, it would be best if you learned DevOps tools, agile methodologies, and practice and practice.

What are the concepts of DevOps interview? 

DevOps interviews frequently address subjects like infrastructure as code (IaC), version control, automated testing, continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD), containerization, and tools like Jenkins, Docker, and Kubernetes.

What are types of DevOps?  

DevOps comprises a number of essential categories, such as Infrastructure as Code (IaC), Site Reliability Engineering (SRE), Continuous Integration (CI), Continuous Delivery (CD), Continuous Deployment, and Continuous Delivery. 

Conclusion

That was the most common DevOps Interview Questions list. We learned what DevOps is, how it works, and several viable implementation methods at the start of this series of DevOps courses. The DevOps interview questions in this lesson can hopefully help you ace the interview and launch a successful career in this industry. The responses to the questions are crisp and to the point. Thus, making you all ready for DevOps interview questions.

We hope that this blog has helped you enhance your knowledge and if you would like to learn more, check out our articles on Top Kotlin Interview QuestionsLinux Interview Questions Part1,  Excel Interview Questions etc.

Happy Reading!

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