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Table of contents
What is Agile Methodology Project Management?
Advantages of the Agile Model
Disadvantages of the Agile Model
What is Waterfall Methodology Project Management?
Advantages of the Waterfall Model
Disadvantages of the Waterfall Model
Key Difference Between Agile and Waterfall Methodology 
Agile Vs Waterfall
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Agile and waterfall model?
Why choose Agile over waterfall?
Is Agile more successful than waterfall?
What are the 4 core principles of Agile methodology?
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Difference Between Agile and Waterfall

Author Harshita Vyas
Master Python: Predicting weather forecasts
Ashwin Goyal
Product Manager @


Agile and waterfall are different ways to get things done. Agile works in cycles, and people work together on different parts of a project at the same time. Waterfall goes step by step, and tasks are usually done one after the other.

Difference Between Agile and Waterfall

In this article, we will discuss difference between Agile and Waterfall methodologies. We will also discuss the benefits and drawbacks of each methodology. 

What is Agile Methodology Project Management?

Agile is a project management approach that values flexibility, teamwork, and quick development iterations. 

Agile methodology in project management is an iterative and flexible approach to completing tasks and projects. It emphasizes collaboration, adaptability, and customer feedback throughout the project's life cycle. Agile breaks the project into small increments, allowing for continuous improvements and adjustments based on changing requirements. 

Agile Methodology

In agile development, the projects are divided into smaller tasks or iterations, known as sprints or iterations, that are typically finished over the course of a week to four weeks. 

The team evaluates its performance at the end of each iteration and adjusts its strategy for the next iteration.

Advantages of the Agile Model

The Agile model offers several advantages in project management:

  • Agile allows for changes and adjustments to project requirements even late in the development process, promoting flexibility and adaptability to evolving needs.
  • The iterative approach facilitates incremental development, enabling the delivery of functional and usable components in short cycles, ensuring continuous improvement.
  • Continuous customer involvement and feedback are encouraged throughout the development process, ensuring that the final product aligns closely with user expectations and needs.
  • Agile focuses on delivering a minimum viable product (MVP) quickly, allowing stakeholders to realize tangible benefits early in the project life cycle.
  • Regular testing and continuous integration in Agile contribute to better product quality. Issues are identified and addressed promptly, reducing the likelihood of major defects.
  • Agile emphasizes strong collaboration among cross-functional teams, fostering better communication, understanding, and synergy among team members.

Disadvantages of the Agile Model

While the Agile model offers various benefits, it also has some disadvantages:

  • Frequent changes in requirements can lead to uncertainty in project scope, making it challenging to define a fixed timeline and budget.
  • Continuous customer involvement is crucial, and if stakeholders are not readily available for feedback, it may hinder progress.
  • The iterative and adaptive nature of Agile can make it challenging to predict the exact timeline and outcomes of the project.
  • Agile requires active participation from cross-functional teams, and if team members are not dedicated or available, it may impact project success.
  • Managing large-scale projects with numerous teams can introduce complexities in coordination and communication.
  • Agile prioritizes working software over comprehensive documentation, which may be a drawback in environments requiring extensive documentation for compliance or regulatory reasons.
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What is Waterfall Methodology Project Management?

The waterfall model is a sequential or level-by-level approach to software development where each phase of the project is completed one at a time and in a specific order, starting with the gathering of requirements, followed by design, implementation, testing, and maintenance. 

Important points about waterfall methodology are as follows: 

  • Each phase is completed and verified before the next one is started, like a waterfall flowing from top to bottom. 
  • This model is very structured and emphasizes planning, documentation, and a clear definition of requirements. 
  • While it was one of the earliest models used in software development, it has been criticized for being too rigid and not allowing for changes to be made easily.

The Waterfall model typically consists of five phases: Requirements gathering and analysis, Design, Implementation, Testing, and Maintenance.

Advantages of the Waterfall Model

Some of the pros of Waterfall Model are listed below:

  • Clear and Structured Process: The Waterfall Model's sequential phases provide a well-organized framework for project planning and management.
  • Documentation Focus: Thorough documentation at each stage enhances understanding, knowledge transfer, and future maintenance.
  • Predictable Timelines and Budgets: The model's structured nature facilitates accurate estimation of project timelines and costs.
  • Quality Emphasis: Rigorous testing and verification in each phase lead to early detection and resolution of defects.
  • Risk Management: Early identification of risks allows for proactive mitigation strategies, reducing potential project disruptions.

Disadvantages of the Waterfall Model

Some of the pros of Waterfall Model are listed below:

  • Limited Flexibility: The rigid, sequential nature of the Waterfall Model makes it difficult to accommodate changes in requirements, which can be a challenge in dynamic environments.
  • Late Customer Feedback: Since customer involvement is limited to the requirements phase, feedback from stakeholders is often delayed until later stages, potentially leading to misalignments with expectations.
  • High Risk of Scope Creep: In cases where initial requirements are not accurately defined or understood, the lack of flexibility can result in scope creep – the continuous expansion of project scope beyond its original boundaries.
  • Long Time-to-Market: Each phase must be completed before the next can begin, leading to longer development cycles and delayed product delivery, which may not align well with today's fast-paced market demands.
  • Difficulty in Handling Complex Projects: The Waterfall Model may struggle to manage complex projects where requirements are interdependent or evolving, as it does not readily adapt to changing circumstances.

It's important to consider these drawbacks when choosing a development methodology and to assess whether the Waterfall Model aligns with the project's specific requirements and constraints.

Key Difference Between Agile and Waterfall Methodology 

Here are key differences between Agile and Waterfall methodologies:

1. Approach:

  • Agile: Iterative and incremental, allowing for flexibility and adaptability.
  • Waterfall: Sequential and linear, with distinct phases.

2. Phases:

  • Agile: Develops in small, functional increments, revisiting and adjusting throughout the project.
  • Waterfall: Progresses through predefined phases (requirements, design, implementation, testing) without revisiting prior phases.

3. Flexibility:

  • Agile: Highly flexible, accommodating changes in requirements even late in development.
  • Waterfall: Less adaptable to changes once a phase is completed.

4. Customer Involvement:

  • Agile: Encourages continuous customer involvement and feedback.
  • Waterfall: Customer involvement mainly at the beginning and end of the project.

5. Testing:

  • Agile: Testing is integrated throughout the development process.
  • Waterfall: Testing is a separate phase following development.

6. Risk Management:

  • Agile: Identifies and mitigates risks continuously during the project.
  • Waterfall: Risk management is typically addressed early in the project.

Agile Vs Waterfall

Here's a tabular comparison of Agile and Waterfall software development methodologies:

Aspect Agile Waterfall
Process Iterative. Sequential.
Approach Adaptive. Predictive.
Planning Continuous planning and re-evaluation. Extensive planning upfront.
Deliverables Working software in short sprints. Completed software at the end of the project.
Documentation Minimal documentation. Extensive documentation.
Feedback Constant feedback and iterations. Feedback after each phase.
Flexibility Highly flexible and adaptable to changes. Not very flexible.
Risk Management Ongoing risk assessment and management. Risk assessment and management upfront.
Team Structure Cross-functional teams with high collaboration. Separate teams for each phase.
Sustainability Not suitable for small projects. Works well for smaller projects

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Agile and waterfall model?

Agile is iterative and adaptable, emphasizing flexibility, while Waterfall is a linear, sequential model with distinct phases.

Why choose Agile over waterfall?

Agile allows for adaptability, customer collaboration, and incremental delivery, making it preferable for dynamic projects where flexibility and continuous improvement are essential.

Is Agile more successful than waterfall?

Agile is often considered more successful than waterfall because it's adaptable, involves customers, and delivers working parts faster, which fits well in today's changing world.

What are the 4 core principles of Agile methodology?

The 4 core principles of Agile methodology are individuals and interactions, working solutions, customer collaboration, and responding to change.


In this article, we have discussed about the difference between Agile and Waterfall. The differences between Agile and Waterfall methodologies underscore the importance of selecting the right approach for specific project needs. Agile's adaptability and incremental progress cater to dynamic environments, fostering collaboration and continuous improvement. On the other hand, Waterfall's structured, phase-by-phase progression suits well-defined projects with stable requirements.

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