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Table of contents
What is JDBC?
JDBC Driver API layer
Features Of JDBC
JDBC Working
What Is ODBC?
Features Of ODBC
ODBC Working
Difference Between JDBC and ODBC
Advantages and Disadvantages Of JDBC
Advantages of JDBC
Disadvantages of JDBC
Advantages and Disadvantages Of ODBC
Advantages of ODBC
Disadvantages of ODBC
Frequently Asked Questions 
How do JDBC and ODBC work?
What are some examples of applications of JDBC and ODBC?
Where are JDBC and ODBC used nowadays?
What common issues and troubleshooting occur while using JDBC and ODBC?
What are some best practices for optimizing JDBC performance?
Last Updated: Jun 12, 2024

Difference Between JDBC and ODBC

Author Vidhi Sareen
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Hello Ninjas, Are you excited to learn something new? Do you know that Top companies like Microsoft and Oracle implement their databases using JDBC and ODBC technologies? It varies depending on customer needs, markets, and other essential factors. JDBC and ODBC are different technologies that let programmers interact with their applications to databases. Software applications access SQL queries and retrieve and manipulate statements for database communication. 

Difference between JDBC and ODBC

JDBC is a Java-based API that allows Java programs to interact with the database. ODBC is a C- based API written in C/C++ to interact with the database. They provide classes and methods that allow application programs to access databases at the backend.

But they are different from each other in the aspects of their implementation or usage. In this article, we will be discussing all aspects of the JDBC and ODBC. We will also discuss the Differences between JDBC and ODBC, which make them unique.

What is JDBC?

JDBC, or Java Database Connectivity, is an abbreviation for this. This API facilitates communication between Java-based applications and databases using SQL queries. It acts like a linking agent. Java developers mainly use it. Java is the programming language that was used to construct this API. Sun Microsystems created and designed this API for their databases.

What is JDBC

It was Launched in 1997 as part of Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.1. It comprises a diverse set of classes, interfaces, and methods that allow a program to interact with databases utilizing SQL queries. The JDBC API is composed of two layers. They are the JDBC API Layer and JDBC Driver API Layer, respectively.


It indicates which application uses the JDBC API to interact with the databases through JDBC drivers. Java Application uses this JDBC driver to interact with and access the database.

JDBC Driver API layer

It acts as an interface between the Java application and the database. The driver sends the request of the application to the database for accessing or manipulating the database. After responding to the application's query, it prepares a result set that is sent back to the driver and then to JDBC API Layer.

JDBC is Object Oriented. It has advanced features like Update and Scrollable Result set. It is platform-independent. They can work on any operating system like Linux or Mac. 

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Features Of JDBC

The main unique feature of ODBC is:

  • JDBC is connected to the database through DriverManger or DataSource objects.
  • It does not need to make connections again and again with databases. If you make a connection again, it will be very costly and time-consuming, and some essential features may be lost.
  • It can manipulate large databases like BLOB and CLOB.
  • It provides batch updates. It means it can send multiple updates in batches rather than individually.
  • It gives about two types of result sets. One of them is Scrollable Result sets. It provides an ability to move forward and backward from a specific position. Another one is the Updatable Result set. It helps in the modification of databases.
  • It has a Savepoints interface. It saves a set of new savepoints and releases savepoints when requested.

JDBC Working

Architecture of JDBC

The key steps involved in working of JDBC are:

  • Load the JDBC driver: The JDBC driver loads the database to Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
  • Establish a connection: A connection is built between the database to transfer the queries through DriverManger or DataSource objects.
  • Create a statement: A statement object executes SQL statements using connection objects.
  • Execute SQL statements: ResultSet is created to store the executed SQL statements result.
  • Process the ResultSet: The data from the database is retrieved using the ResultSet object.
  • Close the ResultSet and Statement objects: To free up the resources they were utilizing, the ResultSet and Statement object is closed.
  • Close the database connection: When the database connection is no longer required, it is closed to free up the resources it was consuming.

In the article further, we will be discussing what ODBC is. What are its key features, and how does it work? We will also be discussing the difference between ODBC and JDBC.

What Is ODBC?

What is ODBC

Open Database Connectivity, commonly known as ODBC, was developed by Microsoft in 1992. Different applications use it as a general API to access and manipulate databases. ODBC development used numerous essential programming languages like Java, Perl, and C# to ensure broad usability across other platforms. 

Since the platform used is Windows, it is program based. It provides a standard for businesses and developers to access databases. The latest version of ODBC is Version 17.10.3, released on January 26, 2023. For example, Microsoft Office supports ODBC.

Features Of ODBC

The main unique feature of ODBC is:

  • Interoperability: 
    You may quickly switch/migrate your application from one database to another using the ODBC driver.
  • Rich metadata: 
    ODBC supports metadata well. It includes functions for obtaining information about both processes and data types.
  • Attributes:
    ODBC additionally offers methods for obtaining information about the characteristics and practices utilized by the drivers.
  • Error code:
    It has an error code method for indicating problems encountered while executing SQL statements.

ODBC Working

Architecture of ODBC

ODBC is a framework made up of four components that function together. ODBC enables programs to use SQL queries to connect to databases without knowing the databases' specific interfaces. The SQL query is handled by ODBC, which turns it into a request that each database system recognizes.

The four different components of ODBC are:

  • Application: 
    The user sends its query to the database. Here the ODBC functions are called, and SQL queries are sent.
  • Data Manager:
    Loads drivers for each application.
  • Driver:
    It handles ODBC function calls before submitting each SQL request to a data source.
  • Data Sources:
    The data source comprises the information that needs to be accessed and the operating system, DBMS, and network platform used in communication with the DBMS.


The article will further discuss the difference between JDBC and ODBC. We will also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of JDBC and ODBC, along with some FAQs.

Difference Between JDBC and ODBC




Full FormStands for Java Database ConnectivityStands for Java Database Connectivity
Created ByIntroduced by Sun MicroSystems in 1997         Introduced by Microsoft in 1992
SupportsUses only Java Programming language Use any programming language like C, C++ etc.
APIJava based APIC-based API
PlatformPlatform IndependentPlatform Dependent
LanuageJDBC is ProceduralODBC is Object Oriented
ApplicationsSpecially designed for Java ApplicationsIt is designed for any applications written in C, C++, Java, Perl etc.
RequiresIt requires Java Virtual Machine (JVM)It does not requires.
ComparisonSlower in performance as compared to ODBCFaster in performance as compared to ODBC

Advantages and Disadvantages Of JDBC

Advantages of JDBC

  • Pure Java:
    It is purely dedicated to Java. It can work on any platform which supports Java Programming language.
  • Better performance : 
    It performs better than ODBC in some cases. It can reuse the used statements and support batch updates.
  • Object-oriented: 
    Since it is Object Oriented, it enables it to work with Java more easily.
  • Standardized : 
    JDBC is a standard API that supports all major relational databases.

Disadvantages of JDBC

  • Complexity:
    JDBC is more complex to use than ODBC. It needs to manage the database manually.
  • Limited Functionality:
    Less functionality than other APIs like JPA or Hibernate, which provide a higher level of abstraction.
  • Platform-specific Driver:
    It is platform-specific. It can work on any platform which supports Java Programming language. 

Advantages and Disadvantages Of ODBC

Advantages of ODBC

  • Cross-Platform :
    ODBC works on multiple platforms like Linux, Windows, and Linux.
  • Compatibility :
    ODBC provides compatibility with different data sources like relational databases, files, etc.
  • Support for non-Java languages : 
    ODBC supports Java and different languages like C, C++, C#, Perl, etc.
  • Widely used : 
    Since it is more flexible and compatible with other languages, that make it such a widely used API. 

Disadvantages of ODBC

  • Performance:
    ODBC is much slower than JDBC since it has an additional layer for abstraction.
  • Complicated to construct:
    ODBC drivers are difficult to create and maintain.
  • Slow with Large databases:
    It can not handle large databases like JDBC. However, it is easy to use.
  • Does not provide standardized:
    ODBC needs to be sufficiently standardized as it is mainly used by clients, which is challenging to scale.

As we have covered the Difference Between JDBC and ODBC, now we discuss some FAQs.

Also see, Duck Number in Java and Hashcode Method in Java

Frequently Asked Questions 

How do JDBC and ODBC work?

JDBC ODBC provides a standard interface for programs to connect with databases. Then Applications send their SQL queries to API, which translates them to database-specific instructions and then sends them to the database. After that, queries are executed, and results are returned to the API and the application server.

What are some examples of applications of JDBC and ODBC?

Examples include customer relationship management (CRM), financial reporting or enterprise resource planning applications, etc.

Where are JDBC and ODBC used nowadays?

These two APIs are used nowadays in increasing support for big data and cloud computing, improved performance, and enhanced security features.

What common issues and troubleshooting occur while using JDBC and ODBC?

Common issues with JDBC and ODBC include driver compatibility issues, connection timeouts, and SQL syntax errors.

Troubleshooting tips include checking driver versions, increasing connection timeout settings, and debugging SQL syntax errors.

What are some best practices for optimizing JDBC performance?

Best Practices are like using Connection Pooling, the help of Batch Updates, Transactions, Connection Parameters, or optimizing SQL queries.


In conclusion, JDBC and ODBC are critical APIs connecting applications to databases. JDBC is a Java-based API, whereas ODBC is a C-based API. JDBC can be used only on Java-based applications, whereas ODBC can be used on various C, C++, C#, Perl, Java, etc. It is recommended to use JDBC instead of ODBC for Java applications. Both APIs enable developers to connect applications with databases to create a consistent interface and provide flexibility and usage to run on different database systems.

In this article, we saw the Difference Between JDBC and ODBC. What are the critical differences between JDBC and ODBC? And we also come across some advantages and disadvantages of JDBC and ODBC in this article.

Check out the article below for more information on this topic

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