Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com. Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com
Last Updated: Apr 25, 2024
Difficulty: Easy

Else If Ladder in C

Leveraging ChatGPT - GenAI as a Microsoft Data Expert
Speaker
Prerita Agarwal
Data Specialist @
23 Jul, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

Introduction

The if-else-if ladder is a powerful tool in C programming that allows you to make decisions based on multiple conditions. It provides a way to execute different blocks of code depending on whether certain conditions are true or false. By using the if-else-if ladder, you can create more complex & sophisticated programs that can handle various scenarios. 

Else If Ladder in C

In this article, we will explore the syntax of the if-else-if ladder, and understand its working flow, with proper examples.

Syntax of the "else-if" Ladder in C

The "else-if" ladder is a sequence of conditions in C programming that helps you execute only one block of code among many options. It starts with an if statement, which is the first condition to check. If this condition is not met, the program moves on to the next condition, expressed as an else if statement. This can continue with multiple else if blocks. If none of the else if conditions are met, the final else block is executed, but this last else is optional.

Here’s how the structure looks in simple terms:

if (condition1) {
    // code to execute if condition1 is true
} else if (condition2) {
    // code to execute if condition2 is true
} else if (condition3) {
    // code to execute if condition3 is true
} else {
    // code to execute if none of the above conditions are true
}


Each condition within the ladder is checked in the order they appear. As soon as one condition evaluates to true, the code block associated with that condition runs, and the rest of the ladder is skipped. If no conditions are true, and an else block is present, the code inside the else block executes.

This syntax allows for clear & logical flows of decisions in your programs, making it easier to manage multiple conditions that lead to different outcomes. It's particularly useful when you have several possible conditions that could occur and need to handle each specifically.

Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job
Bootcamp

Working Flow of the "else-if" Ladder in C

The flow of execution in an "else-if" ladder is straightforward but requires careful attention to the conditions you set up.

When your program reaches an "else-if" ladder, it starts by evaluating the first condition in the if statement. Here's what happens step by step:

else-if" Ladder in C
  • Evaluate the First Condition: The program checks if the condition in the initial if statement is true. If this condition is true, the code block inside this if executes, and the entire "else-if" ladder is exited without checking any further conditions.
     
  • Move to Else-If (if needed): If the first condition is false, the program moves to the next else if block and evaluates its condition. Again, if this condition is true, the corresponding code block executes, and no further conditions are checked.
     
  • Continue Down the Ladder: The process repeats for each else if block in the ladder. The program checks each condition in turn. If a condition is true, its associated code executes, and the rest of the ladder is skipped.
     
  • Final Else (Optional): If none of the conditions in the if or else if blocks are true, and there is an else block at the end, the code inside this block executes. This block acts as a catch-all for cases where none of the specified conditions apply.
     

This structured approach ensures that only one block of code runs for a given set of conditions, preventing multiple blocks from executing in response to a single scenario. It also ensures that at least one block of code can run if all conditions fail by including an else block.

Example

  • C

C

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
int score = 75;

if (score >= 90) {
printf("Excellent!\n");
} else if (score >= 80) {
printf("Very good!\n");
} else if (score >= 70) {
printf("Good\n");
} else if (score >= 60) {
printf("Fair\n");
} else {
printf("Needs improvement\n");
}

return 0;
}

Output

Good

In this example, the score is 75. The program checks each condition until it finds that 75 is greater than 70 but less than 80. It prints "Good" and skips the remaining conditions.

Examples of the "else-if" Ladder in C

Let’s look at few examples to make our understanding better : 

Example 1: Grade Assignment System

This first example uses the "else-if" ladder to determine a student's grade based on their score in a test.

  • C

C

#include <stdio.h>
int main() {
int testScore;
printf("Enter your test score: ");
scanf("%d", &testScore);

if (testScore >= 90) {
printf("Your grade is A.\n");
} else if (testScore >= 80) {
printf("Your grade is B.\n");
} else if (testScore >= 70) {
printf("Your grade is C.\n");
} else if (testScore >= 60) {
printf("Your grade is D.\n");
} else {
printf("Your grade is F.\n");
}

return 0;
}

Output

Enter your test score: 4 89
Your grade is B.

In this code, the program prompts the user to enter a test score. Depending on the score entered, it prints out a grade. The else-if ladder checks each range of scores to find where the entered score fits and assigns the appropriate grade.

Example 2: Simple Calculator

This next example is a simple calculator that performs basic arithmetic operations based on the user's choice.

  • C

C

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
char operator;
double firstNumber, secondNumber;

printf("Enter an operator (+, -, *, /): ");
scanf(" %c", &operator);
printf("Enter two operands: ");
scanf("%lf %lf", &firstNumber, &secondNumber);

if (operator == '+') {
printf("%.1lf + %.1lf = %.1lf\n", firstNumber, secondNumber, firstNumber + secondNumber);
} else if (operator == '-') {
printf("%.1lf - %.1lf = %.1lf\n", firstNumber, secondNumber, firstNumber - secondNumber);
} else if (operator == '*') {
printf("%.1lf * %.1lf = %.1lf\n", firstNumber, secondNumber, firstNumber * secondNumber);
} else if (operator == '/') {
if(secondNumber != 0.0) {
printf("%.1lf / %.1lf = %.1lf\n", firstNumber, secondNumber, firstNumber / secondNumber);
} else {
printf("Division by zero is not allowed.\n");
}
} else {
printf("Error! Operator is not correct.\n");
}

return 0;
}

Output

Enter an operator (+, -, *, /): +
Enter two operands: 6 9
6.0 + 9.0 = 15.0


In this calculator, the user inputs an operator and two numbers. The program then uses an "else-if" ladder to determine which arithmetic operation to perform. It includes a safeguard against division by zero, demonstrating how "else-if" ladders can also handle errors and special conditions effectively.

These examples show how the "else-if" ladder allows for clear, concise, and efficient decision-making processes in programming. It makes the code easier to read & debug by neatly organizing multiple conditions.

Frequently Asked Questions

What happens if none of the conditions in an "else-if" ladder are true?

If none of the conditions specified in the "else-if" ladder are met, and there is an else block present, the code within the else block will execute. If there is no else block, the program will simply skip the entire ladder and continue with the rest of the code.

Can the "else-if" ladder have any number of conditions?

Yes, you can include as many else if conditions as necessary in your ladder. However, for readability & maintenance, it's often better to keep the number of conditions reasonable or consider other structures like switch-case if appropriate.

Is it mandatory to end an "else-if" ladder with an else block?

No, ending with an else block is not mandatory. It's optional but recommended when you want to ensure that some code executes even when all other conditions fail.

Conclusion

In this article, we talked about the "else-if" ladder in C programming. We started with understanding the syntax and flow of the "else-if" ladder, which is crucial for making multiple conditional decisions in your code. Through examples, we saw how to implement this structure to handle different scenarios effectively, from grading systems to simple calculators.

You can refer to our guided paths on the Coding Ninjas. You can check our course to learn more about DSADBMSCompetitive ProgrammingPythonJavaJavaScript, etc. Also, check out some of the Guided Paths on topics such as Data Structure andAlgorithmsCompetitive ProgrammingOperating SystemsComputer Networks, DBMSSystem Design, etc., as well as some Contests, Test Series, and Interview Experiences curated by top Industry Experts.
 

Topics covered
1.
Introduction
2.
Syntax of the "else-if" Ladder in C
3.
Working Flow of the "else-if" Ladder in C
4.
Example
4.1.
C
5.
Examples of the "else-if" Ladder in C
5.1.
Example 1: Grade Assignment System
5.2.
C
5.3.
Example 2: Simple Calculator
5.4.
C
6.
Frequently Asked Questions
6.1.
What happens if none of the conditions in an "else-if" ladder are true?
6.2.
Can the "else-if" ladder have any number of conditions?
6.3.
Is it mandatory to end an "else-if" ladder with an else block?
7.
Conclusion