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Table of contents
1.
Introduction 
2.
Manchester Encoding In Ethernet
3.
ALOHA
3.1.
Pure Aloha
3.2.
Slotted Aloha
3.3.
Difference Between Pure Aloha and Slotted Aloha
4.
Different Types Of Ethernet Networks
5.
Advantages
6.
Disadvantages
7.
Frequently Asked Questions
7.1.
Why is Ethernet used?
7.2.
How to connect the ethernet cable with the computer?
7.3.
How does Ethernet work?
8.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Ethernet in Computer Networks

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Computer Networks

Introduction 

In this blog, we will discuss Ethernet and different types of ethernet networks. An ethernet is a form of communication protocol invented by Robert Metcalfe and colleagues at Xerox PARC in 1973 to link computers on a network through a physical connection. It is also known as Alto Aloha Network, a commonly used LAN protocol. It establishes connections between computers on a local and wide area network. LAN and WAN may link various devices such as printers and laptops within buildings, residences, and even small communities.

It has a straightforward user interface that makes connecting numerous devices such as switches, routers, and PCs easy. With the aid of a single router and a few Ethernet connections, a local area network (LAN) may be set up, allowing communication between all connected devices. This is because your laptop has an Ethernet connector where you may put one end of a cable in and connect the other to a router. Ethernet ports are somewhat broader than telephone jacks and have a similar appearance. 

Most Ethernet devices and connections are backward compatible with slower Ethernet connections and devices. On the other hand, the link will be as quick as the lowest common denominator. When a computer with a 10BASE-T NIC is connected to a 100BASE-T network, the machine can only transmit and receive data at 10 Mbps. Additionally, if you connect the device with a Gigabit Ethernet router, the maximum data transmission rate will be 100 Mbps.

(Also see, Transmission Modes)

Manchester Encoding In Ethernet

The essential notion behind Manchester encoding is that we can represent ones and zeros using voltage transitions rather than voltage levels. Consider the diagram below:

Manchester Encoding In Ethernet

A conventional digital interface with a data signal and a clock signal is shown in the upper portion of the diagram.

A Manchester-encoded signal for the same data is shown in the lower section of the diagram. Take note of how the transitions take place in the middle of the standard-data-signal logic states (in other words, the Manchester transition is aligned with the clock edge that would be used to sample the data). It's also worth noting that a logic-high bit always corresponds to a high-to-low transition, and a logic-low bit always corresponds to a low-to-high transition. (A low-to-high transition might also be used for logic high and a high-to-low transition for logic low; the crucial point is that the receiver circuitry understands which format to expect.)

The AC-coupling problem is instantly eliminated: every bit involves a transition. Hence, the data signal will never linger at logic low or logic high for a lengthy time.

You can also read about the network models in computer network, Memory hierarchy in computer network.

Also see, Message Switching in Computer Networks.

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ALOHA

ALOHA is a system for organizing and arbitrating access to a shared network communication channel. Norman Abramson and his colleagues at the University of Hawaii invented it in the 1970s. The original technology was utilized for terrestrial radio broadcasting, but it has since been adopted in satellite communication systems.
 

A shared communication system, such as ALOHA, needs a technique for dealing with collisions, which occur when two or more systems try to broadcast on the same channel simultaneously. A node in the ALOHA system communicates anytime data is available to send. If another node transmits at the same moment, a collision occurs, and the communicated frames are lost. On the other hand, a node may listen to broadcasts on the media, including its own, and assess if the frames were sent.

Types of Aloha

Pure Aloha

The transmission time in Pure ALOHA is continuous. Whenever a station has an accessible frame, it sends it. If there is a collision and the frame is destroyed, the sender waits a random period of time before retransmitting it.

Slotted Aloha

Slotted ALOHA prevents collisions while more than doubling the capacity of pure ALOHA. The shared channel is separated into distinct time intervals known as slots. A station can only transmit at the start of each slot. However, if more than one station attempts to broadcast at the start of the same time slot, there may be a collision.

Difference Between Pure Aloha and Slotted Aloha

Pure Aloha v/s Slotted Aloha

Recommended Topic, Basic Networking Commands

Different Types Of Ethernet Networks

Fiber optic media converters link Ethernet equipment using CAT5/CAT6 copper wires to a fiber optic connection. This fiber optic cable addition dramatically increases the network's coverage distance. There are many types of Ethernet networks, as listed below:

  • Fast Ethernet: This form of Ethernet is often supported by a twisted pair or CAT5 connection that can transport or receive data at speeds of up to 100 Mbps. If any device, such as a camera, laptop, or another device, is connected to a network, they operate at 100Base and 10/100Base ethernet on the fiber side of the connection. 
     
  • Gigabit Ethernet: This Ethernet network is a step up from Fast Ethernet, which communicates over fiber optic cable and twisted pair cable. It has a data transmission rate of 1000 Mbps or 1Gbps. Gigabit Ethernet has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. This network type also employs CAT5e or other modern cables capable of 10 Gbps data throughput.
     
  • 10-Gigabit Ethernet: A 10-Gigabit Ethernet network can carry data at a rate of 10 Gigabits per second, making it a more sophisticated and high-speed network. It uses twisted-pair cables such as CAT6a or CAT7 and fiber optic cables. With the aid of a fiber optic connection, this network may be extended up to roughly 10,000 meters.
     
  • Switch Ethernet: Adding switches or hubs to a network improves network speed by allowing each workstation to have its own dedicated 10 Mbps connection rather than sharing the medium. A conventional network cable is used instead of a crossover cable when a switch is utilized in a network. It supports 1000Mbps to 10 Gbps for fast Ethernet and 10Mbps to 100Mbps for older Ethernet.
     

Advantages

The following are some of the advantages of using Ethernet:

  • Creating an Ethernet network is not expensive. It is pretty affordable when compared to other computer networking solutions.
  • In terms of data security, the Ethernet network employs firewalls to ensure excellent protection for data.
  • Furthermore, the Gigabit network enables users to send data at speeds ranging from 1-100 Gbps.
  • The data transmission quality is maintained in this network.
  • Administration and maintenance are simplified with this network.
  • The newest versions of gigabit ethernet and wireless Ethernet can carry data at speeds of up to 100 gigabits per second.

Disadvantages

The following are some of the disadvantages of using an Ethernet Network:

  • It requires deterministic service; hence it isn't recommended for real-time applications.
  • The wired Ethernet network is limited and, therefore, best used for small distances in terms of distance.
  • The cost of installing a wired ethernet network, which requires cables, hubs, switches, and routers, rises.
  • In an interactive program, data must be sent quickly, and the data must be minimal.
  • After receiving a packet on an Ethernet network, the receiver does not provide any acknowledgment.
  • Setting up a wireless Ethernet network might be challenging if you have no previous network expertise.
  • The wireless network is not more secure than the traditional Ethernet network.


Know about Stop and Wait Protocol here.

Must Read Subnetting in Computer Networks

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is Ethernet used?

Ethernet is still a popular network connection due to its incredible speed, security, and dependability. It connects devices in a network used by specialized organizations for local networks, such as school campuses and hospitals, corporate offices, etc.
Wireless networks have overtaken Ethernet in many locations, yet Ethernet is still the most prevalent wired networking technology. Wi-Fi eliminates the need for wiring by allowing users to connect their cellphones or laptops to a network without using a wire. The 802.11ac Wi-Fi standard provides faster maximum data transfer rates than Gigabit Ethernet. Wired connections, however, are more secure and less susceptible to interference than wireless networks. This is the primary reason why many companies and organizations continue to adopt Ethernet.

How to connect the ethernet cable with the computer?

The procedure is the same, whether you're connecting an Ethernet connection to your computer or setting up a home network. It looks like a vast telephone cable jack, as seen in the picture below. Once you've found it, you'll need to press the cable connector into the port until you hear a click. A green light will indicate a discovered signal if the connection is correctly established on the other end.

How does Ethernet work?

Multiple computers share a coaxial cable connection, which serves as the computers' single communication channel. Ethernet utilizes the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD)
protocol to manage the shared usage of a single channel. This protocol governs who is permitted to transmit data and when.

Conclusion

In this blog, we have briefly discussed Ethernet, and we have also discussed different terms related to it like Manchester Encoding, Aloha, etc. After reading this blog, I hope that you must have gained some insight into this topic. 

Recommended Readings:


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To study more about computer networks, refer to disadvantages of computer network.

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