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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
What is an Expert System in AI?
3.
Components of Expert System in AI
3.1.
1. Knowledge Base
3.2.
2. Inference Engine
3.3.
3. User Interface
3.4.
4. Explanation Module
3.5.
5. Knowledge Acquisition System
4.
Features of Expert System in AI
5.
Examples of Expert Systems
6.
Advantages of Expert System in AI
7.
Disadvantages of Expert System in AI
8.
Applications of Expert Systems
9.
Development of Expert Systems in AI
9.1.
Participants in the Development of Expert System
10.
Frequently Asked Questions
10.1.
What is an expert system in AI?
10.2.
What are the 4 categories of expert system?
10.3.
What are the 5 parts of the expert system?
11.
Conclusion 
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
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Expert System in Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Author Rinki Deka
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Introduction

Expert System in Artificial Intelligence are programmed in such a way that they imitate human intelligence in a specific domain, thus making the work of humans easier. In this article, we will discuss the AI Expert systems in detail. We will explore the examples of some expert systems, followed by their advantages and disadvantages. Further, we will compare an AI expert with a human expert and then list the applications of AI Expert systems.

expert system in ai

What is an Expert System in AI?

Expert systems in AI are interactive computer software developed to work with the ability of a human expert in a particular domain. Such software uses a knowledge base or a dataset to solve a particular problem or assist in decision-making.

This idea of expert systems was first introduced by computer scientist Edward Feigenbaum in 1970 to solve the complex problems of a world depending more on the processing of knowledge with the help of computer algorithms.

The expert systems improve the efficiency, accuracy, and consistency of the tasks initially performed by human experts, thus defining their various use cases in different fields like transportation, finance, medicine, customer care, etc.

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Components of Expert System in AI

components of an expert system in AI

The components of an Expert system in AI are as follows:

1. Knowledge Base

It is also considered the heart of an AI expert system. It contains all the data, facts, and rules depending on which the Expert system decides.

2. Inference Engine

It consists of algorithms that fetch useful information from the knowledge base and use it to conclude new facts to the user's problems.

The inference engine follows two strategies for extracting knowledge from the knowledge base. They are:

Forward chaining: Forward chaining is a strategy in which the Inference Engine starts with the available knowledge and applies the rules in the Knowledge Base to generate new facts. The engine keeps applying the rules until it reaches a conclusion or cannot apply any more rules. It is based on logical prediction methodology. For example, prediction of the trends of the stock market.

Backward chaining: Backward chaining is a strategy in which the Inference Engine starts with a conclusion and works backward to find the evidence that supports the conclusion. The engine uses the rules in the Knowledge Base to determine which facts are needed to support the decision concluded. This strategy is also known as top-down reasoning, as it starts with a goal and works downward to determine the data needed to support the goal.

3. User Interface

This defines the platform or the interface where any non-expert can communicate with the AI Expert system to solve their problems. 

4. Explanation Module

This component explains how the system has reached the respective solution, providing the user with a clear understanding of the facts.

5. Knowledge Acquisition System

This component learns and acquires knowledge from the knowledge base. It extracts knowledge from experts in the specific domain and adds it to the system.

knowledge acquisition system in expert system

Features of Expert System in AI

The features of an expert system in Artificial Intelligence are:

  • Expert systems in AI are known for their accuracy, efficiency, and consistency.
     
  • An AI Expert system is responsible for reasoning and decision-making.
     
  • It can be scaled as per the size of the database. 
     
  • Expert systems are trained on a knowledge base and operate on an inference engine.
     
  • An Artificial Intelligence expert system is a reliable and consistent computer software.
     
  • Expert systems should be able to solve complex problems following the most efficient approach.
     
  • The UI of the expert system should be user-friendly such that the user can interact with the software without any hindrance.

Examples of Expert Systems

There are many examples of Expert Systems in AI. Some of them are:

1. MYCIN: MYCIN is the first AI expert system introduced in 1970. It was developed to help physicians with disease diagnosis.
 

2. DENDRAL: Dendral expert system used the spectrometry data to identify the structure of unknown organic molecules.
 

3. R1/XCON: This AI expert system was developed by the Digital Equipment Corporation in the 1980s to set up computer systems for users as per their requirements.
 

4. PROSPECTOR: The PROSPECTOR expert system helped geologists locate mineral deposits based on geological data.
 

5. PXDES: The PXDES expert system was programmed to detect the type and stage of lung cancer in cancer patients.
 

6. MYCROFT: This open-source expert system was developed to help in Natural Language Processing.

Advantages of Expert System in AI

The advantages of an expert system in Artificial Intelligence are:

  • Expert systems can assist in making consistent decisions on a given data set. This is very important in the finance and medical industry.
     
  • Expert systems are available 24/7
     
  • They are a cost-effective solution as they reduce the cost of hiring and training human experts
     
  • Expert systems work on programmed algorithms and machine learning models; hence, decisions do not depend on emotions.
     
  • Expert systems in AI operate faster than human experts with minimal error. 

Disadvantages of Expert System in AI

Some of the main disadvantages of Expert systems in Artificial Intelligence are:

  • Expert systems in AI involve high development costs.
     
  • AI Expert systems work on a specific domain. This results in limited flexibility of the system.
     
  • Expert systems in AI work on limited knowledge and rules and hence lack common sense.
     
  • Human emotion is also an important part of decision-making. But Expert systems in AI lack these emotions.
     
  • The results of AI expert systems are sometimes very complex and difficult to understand for normal people. For example, the system's recommendations are very complicated to understand by non-experts in the field.
     
  • Expert systems in AI require regular maintenance and update that can be time-consuming and expensive.

Applications of Expert Systems

Expert systems in AI are used in a wide range of industries. Some of their applications include:

  1. AI Experts systems are used in the medical and healthcare industry. They analyze the symptoms of patients, thereby assisting in disease diagnosis.
     
  2. Expert systems analyze market trends and stock prices, thus helping develop investment strategies in the finance industry.
     
  3. They are used in manufacturing and production units to detect product defects, thus checking the quality.
     
  4. AI Expert systems are also used in training and education to provide a personalized experience to the students and make the learning process easier.
     
  5.  They are also used in customer service applications to provide recommendations to customers.
     
  6. Expert systems also find their application in troubleshooting complex systems.
     
  7. Geologists also use expert systems to detect weather patterns and mineral deposits.
     
  8. Expert systems are used in the farming and agriculture industry to predict disease in crops and hence the damage.
     
  9. Expert systems are also used in transportation, such as in designing highways, traffic control systems, etc.

Development of Expert Systems in AI

The development process of an expert system in AI is iterative. The following steps are taken for it:

1.Identification of Problem: Firstly, the problem domain is identified. The problem should be suitable and solvable by an expert system. Then, certain experts in tasks are found for the project. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of the system is established.

2. Designing the System: Once the problem is identified, the system is designed to cope with the situation. The Expert System technology to be used is identified. Then, the integration of the system with other systems and databases is designed.

3. Development of Prototype: After designing the system, a prototype is developed. Here, the knowledge engineer has to work to acquire knowledge from the knowledge base and represent it in the if-else-if forms.

4. Testing of Prototype: Once the prototype is developed, it is tested. All the sample cases are tested to check the working of the prototype.

5. Development of the Expert System: After testing the prototype, finally, the system is made. It is tested to ensure its integration with other systems, users, and databases. Afterward, the project is documented, and the users are trained to use the expert system accordingly.

6. Maintenance of System: The knowledge base is updated, and integration with newer systems is done if required.

Participants in the Development of Expert System

Mainly, there are three participants in the development of an expert system.

  • Expert: The human experts who specialize in this domain provide expert system knowledge. Therefore, for the success of the expert system, these experts need to be knowledgeable in the domain.
     
  • Knowledge Engineer: A Knowledge Engineer is a person who retrieves knowledge from different domain experts. Then, the engineer programs into the system according to the formalism.
     
  • End-User: This field includes a person or a group of persons who may not be specialists, and the people working on expert system needs advice for the queries.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an expert system in AI?

Expert systems in AI are interactive computer software developed to work with an ability similar to that of a human expert in a particular domain. Such software uses a knowledge base or a dataset to solve a particular problem which helps them in their decision-making process.

What are the 4 categories of expert system?

Expert System is divided into four main categories. These categories are rule-based expert system, frame-based expert system, fuzzy expert system, and neural expert system. All these categories have different approaches to problem-solving and different capabilities.

What are the 5 parts of the expert system?

The five main components of the expert system are the knowledge base, inference engine, user interface, explanation module, and knowledge acquisition system. These parts work together to help the system function smoothly.

Conclusion 

Kudos, Ninja, on making it to the finish line of this article! Expert System in AI can potentially bring a change in the world with their reliable and consistent decision-making approach. 

We hope this blog has helped you understand the concept of expert systems in AI better. 

We recommend you read some of our other articles on AI and machine learning: 

  1. Applications of AI
  2. AI questions and answers
  3. Basics of Machine Learning

 

Refer to our Guided Path to enhance your skills in DSACompetitive ProgrammingJavaScriptSystem Design, and many more!

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