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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
What is Android Operating System
3.
The architecture of Android OS
3.1.
Linux Kernel 
3.2.
Libraries 
3.3.
Android Runtime
3.4.
Application Framework
3.5.
Applications
4.
Features of Android Operating System
4.1.
Near Field Communication
4.2.
Multiple Language Support
4.3.
Multi-tasking
4.4.
Connectivity
4.5.
Customizability
4.6.
Storage and battery optimization
4.7.
Security
5.
Applications of the Android Operating System
5.1.
Mobile phones, tablets, and wearable 
5.2.
Smart home devices
5.3.
Education 
5.4.
Banking
5.5.
Healthcare
5.6.
E-commerce
5.7.
Social media
6.
What is Android Applications?
7.
Comparison between Google’s Android and Apple’s IOS?
8.
Advantages of Android Operating System
9.
Disadvantages of Android Operating System
10.
Frequently Asked Questions.
10.1.
What is the operating system of the Android?
10.2.
Who made Android operating system?
10.3.
What is the full form of Android?
10.4.
Why is the Android OS important?
11.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
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Features of Android Operating System

Author Lekhika
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Ashwin Goyal
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18 Jun, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

Introduction

Leaving all other mobile Operating Systems behind, Android has secured an excellent position in the market. It has a market share topping 70%. One reason behind this supremacy is that the manufacturers are drawn to its adaptability. Since it is an open-source a platform that enables considering personalized alterations. Its utility is more comprehensive than smartphones. It involves different electronic devices like smartwatches, televisions, tablets, etc. This article will discuss essential features of Google's innovative and adaptive OS, the Android Operating System.

Android Operating System

What is Android Operating System

Android is the most reliable mobile operating system. It was primarily designed for smartphones and tablets. It comes up with a customized version of the Linux OS. It also provides a large number of open-source apps. Open Handset Alliance created Android. Google financially supported it. Before being purchased by Google in 2005, the Silicon Valley-based software company Android Inc. created this operating system. The HTC Dream was the first commercially launched Android phone in September 2008.

After launching, Android phones took over all the other competitive smartphones in the market. Due to its distinctive qualities, it gained widespread recognition. Features include a user-friendly interface, overall support, a broad range of software offerings, and mass production for Android devices.

After that, application and software developers use this Android technology to develop unique applications. That will help you to plan your daily activities adequately. Android users have the option to connect their devices to Google services. Services include email clients, video streaming, chat apps, gaming, and editing. This has significantly influenced people worldwide. This has led to an increase in the demand for Android phones.

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The architecture of Android OS

Android is a stack of software components comprising five sections and four main layers. They are:

  • Linux kernel
     
  • Libraries
     
  • Android Runtime
     
  • Application Framework
     
  • Applications

Linux Kernel 

It is the bottom layer. It is one of the operating system functions which create a platform to run an Android application. It supports various runtime management like display, camera, memory, etc. The Kernel manages input and output queries from the software. It provides an abstraction layer between hardware layers and other components. It does not directly interact with the user. The main Key features that make it unique are resource scheduling, security, network management, and memory management.

Libraries 

On top of Kernel, libraries are present. It consists of a set of libraries, including open source libraries like Web browser engine WebKit, library libc, SSL libraries (for internet security), SQLite Libraries (storing data), etc. It also consists of libraries of C and C++. The essential Android libraries are Android.database, Android.os, Android.text, Android.opengl, etc.

Android Runtime

This part of the architecture has a crucial component named Dalvik Virtual Machine. It is specially designed for Android. It poses behavior similar to that of a Java virtual machine(JVM). It uses features of the Linux kernel, like threading and memory management. The libraries enable us to create Android applications using JAVA and Kotlin.

Application Framework

It provides several important classes that are used in creating applications. It includes high-level services like resource management, package management, view management, etc. Developers use these services to develop Android applications. It offers a general abstraction for hardware access and aids in controlling user interface resources for applications.

Applications

It is the top layer of Android architecture. You can find all Android applications in this layer, like the gallery, home screen, camera, and apps (games or shopping apps). It utilizes the classes and services made available by the application framework to function within the Android run time.

Features of Android Operating System

Features of Android Operating System

Near Field Communication

NFC is a wireless technology. It has a limited range that enhances the intelligence of your smartphone, tablets, wearable devices, payment cards, etc. With NFC, you can quickly send your data to different devices with just one click. For example, your bill payments, exchanging business cards, accessing vouchers, or sharing a research report.

Multiple Language Support

Android's Multilingual capability enables users to switch between different languages. It has numerous global language dialects like English, French, Chinese, etc. It helps the user to meet their preferences. Android language extension also targets regional languages which were previously restricted.

Multi-tasking

Multitasking by Android Operating System can make phone users use various applications simultaneously. These advanced edge-cutting features have made switching between different tasks easier.

Connectivity

Android devices provide a wide range of connectivity possibilities. WiFi, Bluetooth, Hotspots, CDMA, and GSM are some examples. It also offers VPN, NFC, VOLTE, and USB options. Android make sure their customer has access to the up-to-date network. So it supports 4G and 5G networks.

Customizability

Android has a wide range of customization choices. That enables the user to personalize your device completely. Users can use Widgets that help display necessary elements on their home screen. Information like current weather conditions or easy control of the media player. This reduces the time the user spends on opening an app.

Storage and battery optimization

Internal storage and additional capacity by microSD cards are two storage options. Customers can choose the amount of memory they need and expand.

Security

Special functions like camera and microphone require the user's permission. Built-in data encryption features provide additional security protection for user data. Other features like two-factor authentication and Find My Device give a shield against unwarranted threats.

Applications of the Android Operating System

Applications of the Android Operating System

Android Operating system is a widely used platform that provides power to hundreds of smartphones, tablets, and other electronic devices. Some of the most common applications are

Mobile phones, tablets, and wearable 

Android was primarily designed as an operating system for mobile phones and tablets. More than 80% of the users are using Android OS nowadays. Android has not only limited its use to smartphones but has launched a specialized version, Android Wear, like a fitness band, which is most popular nowadays.

Smart home devices

Android has opened the path for modern products that promise efficient living environments, making innovative home technology. Like smart speakers, thermostats and hi-tech security cameras bring innovation to everyday households.

Education 

Android tablets and smartphones are widely used in education for teaching and learning purposes. Android devices are more affordable and easy to use than other devices.

Banking

After the pandemic, digitization has taken its peak. Now, different banks have launched Android applications allowing customers to check their information or solve their queries without going to the bank. Work like checking their account balance, paying bills, or transferring money can be done within seconds using these apps.

Healthcare

The healthcare industry uses Android applications to monitor patients' health care, track their medical records or manage medical inventory. Doctors are also using these apps to provide medical consultancy services.

E-commerce

These Android apps are being used by a lot of e-commerce businesses to promote simple and practical online shopping methods.

Social media

Many social media platforms are using their android Applications. This has let the user stay connected with their loved ones. These applications have numerous functions, like uploading photos or videos as well as actively engaging with other users at the same time.

Overall, the Android operating system is used in many applications and industries, making it one of the most versatile and optimized operating systems available today.

What is Android Applications?

An Android application, or Android app, is a software program designed to run on devices using the Android operating system. These apps offer various functions and services, ranging from productivity and entertainment to communication and utilities. They can be downloaded from the Google Play Store or other sources and enhance the functionality of Android devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android apps are developed using programming languages like Java or Kotlin and are distributed as APK files, allowing users to access a wide array of features and services on their Android devices.

Comparison between Google’s Android and Apple’s IOS?

S.No Comparison Point Android IOS
1 Developed Developed by Google and Open Handset Alliance Developed by Apple Incorporation
2 Released on Released on 23 September 2008 Released on 29 July 2007
3 Designed for Specially designed for Apple iphones and ipads. Specially designed for smartphones of all companies.
4 Customization Can be customized a lot according to the user’s need Limited customized ability
5 Software Open source Closed software, but have open sources components
6 Default Browser Google Chrome Safari
7 Languages 100+ languages Up to 40 languages
8 Programming Languages used to build Written using C, C++, JAVA and other languages Written in C,C++, Objective-C and Swift
9 Virtual Assistant Google Assistant Siri
10 File Transfer File transfer using USB port or Android File Transfer App File transfer using iTunes desktop app only
11 Programming Languages used to build Apps Use Java and Kotlin programming languages to build Android apps Mainly Use Swift  programming languages to build IOS apps
12 Kernel Type Linux-based Hybrid
13 Maps Google Maps Apple Maps
14 Security Give security updates monthly Give security updates occasionally

Advantages of Android Operating System

  • Open Source: Android is open source, enabling developers to access and modify the source code, promoting innovation, and customization.
  • App Ecosystem: Android offers a vast app ecosystem with millions of applications available on the Google Play Store, covering a wide range of needs and preferences.
  • Hardware Diversity: Android supports a wide variety of hardware components, allowing manufacturers to create devices with varying specifications and features.
  • Customization: Android provides extensive customization options for users, including widgets, themes, and app launchers, tailoring the user experience.
  • Integration with Google Services: Android seamlessly integrates with Google services like Gmail, Google Maps, and Google Drive, enhancing productivity and convenience.
  • Multitasking: Android supports multitasking, enabling users to run multiple apps simultaneously and switch between them with ease.
  • Security Features: Android incorporates robust security features, including app sandboxing, encryption, and regular security updates, along with Google Play Protect for app safety.
  • Global Reach: Android has a widespread global presence, making it accessible and familiar to users in many regions, and has a large and active developer community.

Disadvantages of Android Operating System

  • Fragmentation: Android's fragmentation problem arises from the diversity of devices and manufacturers, resulting in variations in hardware capabilities and Android versions.
  • Security Concerns: Android is susceptible to malware and security vulnerabilities, primarily due to the availability of third-party app stores and open-source nature.
  • Delayed Updates: Some Android devices receive delayed or no software updates, leading to outdated operating systems and potential security risks.
  • Inconsistent User Experience: Due to manufacturer customizations, the user experience can vary significantly between different Android devices, causing inconsistencies.
  • Resource Intensive: Android can be resource-intensive, leading to performance issues on low-end devices with limited hardware capabilities.
  • Battery Life: Background processes, multiple apps running, and hardware variations can impact battery life on Android devices.
  • Privacy Concerns: Android may collect a substantial amount of user data, raising privacy concerns unless carefully managed by users.
  • Compatibility Issues: Some apps may not work correctly on all Android devices due to fragmentation and hardware/software differences.

Frequently Asked Questions.

What is the operating system of the Android?

The Android operating system is based on the Linux kernel and is developed by Google. It serves as the software platform for a wide range of mobile devices, including smartphones and tablets.

Who made Android operating system?

The Android operating system was developed by Android Inc., which was co-founded by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White. Google later acquired Android Inc. in 2005.

What is the full form of Android?

The term "Android" does not have an official full form. It is a word derived from the English term "android," meaning a human-like robot, reflecting the idea of a versatile and intelligent mobile platform.

Why is the Android OS important?

The Android OS is vital due to its widespread use, open-source nature, and vast app ecosystem. It powers billions of devices, offering accessibility, customization, and a platform for innovation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Android Operating system is one of the most popular, well-liked, and frequently used mobile Operating Systems worldwide. It provides a wide range of features like adaptability and customization. Developers and consumers prefer this operating system over other mobile Operating systems. If this partnership continues like this in the future, we can also see a huge advancement in mobile computing. 

In this article, we saw what an Android operating system is. What are it's architecture and key features which make it so unique? We also have discussed what its real-time applications are. We even discuss the difference between Android and IOS in this article. 

Check out the article below for more information about the Android Operating System.

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