R is a software environment for analyzing statistical data and graphical depiction. We can use functions in R to conduct modular programming. R usually has a command-line interface. R is available on popular platforms such as Windows, Linux, and macOS. R was named after the initial letter of the authors' first names (Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka).

R in Data science is open-source software that is free to use. Also, the programming language is adaptable, making it simple to integrate with many applications and procedures. In this blog, we will have an understanding of R along with various Features of R.

What is R?

R is a popular open-source programming language for statistical computing and data analysis. R typically includes a command-line interface. It is an interpreted computer programming language developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman at the University of Auckland in New Zealand. R supports not only branching and looping but also modular programming via functions. To boost efficiency, R can be integrated with procedures written in C, C++, .Net, Python, and FORTRAN.

For data analysis, R programming is a scripting language that supports a number of statistical analysis methods, machine learning models, and graphical visualizations. It is an open-source programming language with a sizable user base. Learning and using the R programming language is easy. You can build an effective R program, data models, and graphical charts using a variety of built-in functions and support packages. In the modern world, data analysts, statisticians, and marketers frequently use R as a tool for accessing, cleaning, and presenting data.

What are the Features of R that Make People Use it?

There are various features of R, some of which are discussed below:

1. Open-Source

You don’t have to pay any money to download R on your computer. It is free and open-source software. Furthermore, you can contribute towards the development of R, customize its packages, and add more features.

2. Strong Ability to Design Graphics

R has improved libraries that make it possible to create interactive graphics. As a result, data visualization and representation are relatively simple. R can generate various flow diagrams, from straightforward charts to intricate, interactive ones.

3. Extensive Range of Packages

CRAN, or the Comprehensive R Archive Network, contains over 10,000 different packages and extensions that help handle a wide range of data science challenges. R contains a large set of packages for many subjects, such as astronomy, biology, and so forth. While R was developed for academic objectives, it is now also utilized in industry.

4. Efficient in Software Development

R has an extensive development environment, which means it may be used for both statistical computing and software development. R is an object-oriented programming language. It also includes a powerful package called Rshiny that can be used to create full-fledged web apps.

5. Computing in a Distributed Environment

Tasks are split across numerous processing nodes in distributed computing to minimize processing time and boost efficiency. R offers tools like “ddR” and “multiDplyr” that allow it to process big data sets using distributed computing.

6. Data Wrangling

The process of cleansing large and inconsistent data sets in order to facilitate computation and further analysis is known as data wrangling. This is a time-consuming process. R's broad tool collection can be utilized for database management and wrangling.

7. No Compilation

The R language is interpreted rather than compiled. As a result, no compiler is required to compile code into an executable program. The R code is evaluated step by step and turned straight into machine-level calls. This significantly reduces the time required to run a R script.

8. Enables Quick Calculations

R supports a wide range of complicated operations on vectors, arrays, data frames, and other data objects of various sizes. Furthermore, all of these actions occur at breakneck speed. It includes a variety of operator suites to execute these varied calculations.

9. Integration with Other Technologies

Many other technologies, frameworks, software programs, and programming languages can be combined with R. To use Hadoop's distributed computing capabilities. It can be linked with it. Additionally, it may be integrated with programs written in FORTRAN, C, C++, Java, and Python, among other computer languages.

10. Compatibility with Multiple Platforms

R allows for cross-platform compatibility. It can run on any operating system and in any software environment. It can also run on any hardware setup without the need for any further workarounds.

Why R is Used?

In the previous section, we discussed various features of R, but now we will see why we should use R.

R provides a rich set of statistics-related libraries and a suitable environment for statistical computing and design.

It is a free and open-source language. That is, anyone without a license can install it in any organization.

R is a programming language that not only provides statistics but also allows us to integrate with other languages (C, C++). As a result, you may simply connect with a wide range of data sources and statistical tools.

Many quantitative analysts use R as a programming tool since it is excellent for data importing and cleaning.

It is a platform-independent language. This means that it is applicable to all operating systems.

Applications of R

Some of the applications of R are given below:

R is used for Data Science. It offers us a wide range of statistics-related libraries. Additionally, it offers a setting for statistical computation and design.

Many quantitative analysts utilize R as a programming language. As a result, it aids in data import and cleansing.

In environmental science, R is used to analyze and simulate environmental data, climate data, and ecological data.

The most common language is R. It is used by a large number of data analysts and research programmers. As a result, it is employed as a fundamental financial instrument.

Limitations of R

Apart from the various features of R, it has some limitations also. Some of the limitations of R are given below:

It has slow working. R is slower than programming languages such as Python or MATLAB.

It consumes a lot of memory. R's memory management is not one of its strong features. R's data must be physically stored.

It lacks uniform documentation/package quality. Documentation and packages can be uneven, inconsistent, or even missing.

It is a complicated language. The learning curve for R is severe. It is a language best suited for persons with prior programming knowledge.

A confusion matrix can be used to assess the model's accuracy. It computes a comparison of observed and expected classes. This is possible with the confusion matrix () function from the caTools package.

Q. What is a Random Forest in R?

Random Forest is an ensemble classifier created by combining many decision tree models. It combines the results of several decision tree models to provide a result that is usually superior to the results of any individual model.

Q. What is K-MEANS clustering in R?

A well-known partitioning approach is K-means clustering. Objects are classified as belonging to one of the K-groups using this procedure. The partitioning approach produces a collection of K clusters, with each object of the data set belonging to one of them.

Q. What is the rattle package in R?

Rattle is a popular R-based data mining GUI. It generates statistical and visual data summaries and converts data so that it may be easily modeled. It generates unsupervised and supervised machine learning models from the data and visually displays model performance.

Conclusion

The R programming language is an effective and flexible tool for statistical research, data processing, and visualization. It provides a comprehensive selection of tools for researchers and data scientists with a wide range of packages and libraries. This article gives a basic idea of R programming language, its uses, along with various features of R.