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Table of contents
Fog Computing
Fog Nodes
Working Of Fog
Benefits of fog Computing
Key Takeaways
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Fog Computing

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Imagine you are in a situation where you need to observe the quick responses of an application/device, and you are using an IoT device. Since majorly IoT devices use the concept of cloud computing to process information. But lets us understand the cloud computing concept, where the data to be processed needs to be transferred to the cloud, and then it will be processed and provide the results/outcome. Will this give the result much faster? The answer will be No. Why? Because more methods exist to get the results much quicker. This necessity to avoid the problems faced by the IoT devices in their computation process results in the development of “Fog Computing.”

Fog Computing

Fog computing architecture


Fog Computing is a concept of Decentralized computing infrastructure coined by Cisco in order to improve the concept of cloud computing. It can be a compliment or an alternative to cloud computing. Fog Computing or Fogging is the idea to extend the cloud services nearer to the IoT devices. From the above architecture, we can say that the Fog acts as a mediator between the Cloud and the IoT devices. 

→ The data that is generated by the IoT devices need to be processed.

→ If the data is time-sensitive, the data will be sent to the Fog layer and computed.

→ If the data is not time-sensitive, then data will be sent to the cloud layer and get computed.

We said that Fog Computing is a Decentralized computing infrastructure. Here Decentralized means that the computing resources are not centralized, i.e., not fixed. The computing resources in fog computing will move and be set nearer to the IoT devices that generate data. Thus this concept will reduce the network bandwidth usage and reduce Latency. This will result in faster computation. Many big enterprises are currently utilizing the concept of fog computing to faster the computation.

Fog Nodes

  • Another important thing to be noticed is “ Fog Node “.
  • Fog Nodes are the virtual instances that are present in the Fog layer, used to supplement the process of cloud computing. A group of computing resources related to a particular sector acts as one Fog Node, etc. A mini storage unit acts like a Fog Node. 
  • The fog layer is actually connected to a big cloud (private or public cloud) from which the Fog Nodes will fetch and push the data to it. 
  • The Fog Nodes are used to provide a Transient storage capability. If the data is not transient, then it is moved to the cloud for storage.
  • Fog Nodes will quickly decide whether to compute the data or send the data to the Cloud for computation.
  • Each fog node has its aggregate fog node. And they can be deployable over the network. Example: routers, switches, etc.
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Working Of Fog


The working of fog computing is quite understandable.

  • First, the data will get ingested by the Fog nodes by the IoT Devices.
  • Then if the data is most time-sensitive, then the fog node will compute the data and present the quick action and store the results. 
  • If the data is less time-sensitive, then the data is sent to aggregate Fog Nodes and get computation done.
  • If the data is not time-sensitive, then the data is sent to the actual cloud to get the computation of the data done.

Benefits of fog Computing

→ BandWidth: 
As fog computing uses the resources to be located near or at the device where data is generated, the movement of data will be nill. The data transfer will reduce compared to cloud computing. This indirectly reduces network bandwidth usage, which is best. 

→ Latency:
The Latency, i.e., how late the response will be made, will be reduced in the case of fog computing. This is because as the data processing resources will be available at or near the device, it’s just a matter of computing that is to be done at the device by the fog nodes. Thus this will result in low latency.

→ Congestion:
Since the device data isn’t actually moving anywhere, the chance of congestion will be very less.

→ Security and Reliability:
We can see that if the data is actually transferring to other locations or devices, then we may fear security problems. But, in this fog computing, the data is not moving like to a cloud data center, etc., based on whether it is time-sensitive or not. Thus security problems are significantly, very less.

Check out this problem - Connect Nodes At Same Level


  1. What is Fog Computing?
    Fog Computing is the decentralized computing mechanism that is coined by Cisco as a complement or alternative to cloud computing. It avoids the problems faced by cloud computing. The Fog here is nothing but the edge of the devices.
  2. Why do we need Fog Computing for IoT devices?
    IoT devices are generally containing a lot of sensor-related stuff. These sensors will generate a lot of data in a unit of time. Getting this much information processing will require a much faster computation mechanism, thus leading to Fog Computing.
  3. What is the function of Fog Nodes?
    Fog Nodes acts as an intermediary between the cloud and IoT devices. They have the capability to make a decision whether to compute it or to send the data to the cloud to get computed. Fog nodes compromise the fog computing architecture.
  4. What are the challenges that are faced by Fog computing?
    Fog computing is majorly challenged in three components. The first is Power Consumption -> Fogging uses the addition of nodes, this results in higher power consumption than cloud computing. The second is as the data generated nodes are distributed, security is at risk. And the last is maintaining the integrity and availability of millions of nodes is difficult.

Key Takeaways

So Far, This article discusses the concept of Fog computing, how it works, the architecture, the important thing->the Fog Node, and the benefits of it. We will explore this concept later in the upcoming articles. Until then, keep exploring. Thank You!
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