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Fundamentals of Database Systems

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Prerita Agarwal
Data Specialist @
23 Jul, 2024 @ 01:30 PM


Before we start the DBMS Tutorial, we need to have a clear insight into what Databases are. Let us say that you’re working in a corporation where there are about a million employees scattered across the globe. Every employee will have a Unique Employee ID, a job role, a manager who the employee is working under, a ‘hire’ date and a ‘termination of contract’ date, and a particular amount of salary.

Now it is not impossible to make tables, categorize the data, write a million entries down into one long sheet of paper, but it is rather unethical. This is why Databases officially came into existence in the 1960s. 

Fundamentals of Database Systems: DBMS Tutorial

What is a Database?

A Database is an electronic form of the ‘unethical long sheet’. This Database can now be broken into parts, related to one another, sorted by different variables, and can even be compared to each other. Let’s say that you want to compare the salary of employees, having the same job role and years of experience.

The only key difference is that they are working in different countries. The DBMS or Database Management Systems let us do so.

Recommended Topic, Schema in DBMS and Recursive Relationship in DBMS

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What is DBMS?

Now that we have a clear insight on what Databases are, we can start discussing DBMS (Database Management Systems). You might have heard of MySQL or Microsoft Access. These are two out of the many Database Management Systems. These are software that allow you to store data, fetch data and retrieve it and also allow you to run queries on Databases.

Also See, Multiple Granularity in DBMS, Locked based protocol in DBMS and Checkpoint in DBMS

Fundamentals of DataBase System

Fundamentals of Database Systems refer to the foundational concepts and principles that underpin the design, creation, management, and utilization of databases. These fundamentals encompass various aspects, including:

  • Data Models: Database systems are built upon data models, which define the structure, constraints, and relationships of the data stored in the database. Common data models include the relational model, hierarchical model, network model, and object-oriented model.
  • Database Design: Database design involves the process of defining the schema, tables, attributes, and relationships of a database based on the requirements of the application or organization. It includes normalization techniques to minimize redundancy and ensure data integrity.
  • Data Manipulation: Database systems provide mechanisms for inserting, updating, deleting, and querying data stored in the database. This is typically achieved through SQL (Structured Query Language) or other query languages.
  • Transaction Management: Transactions are units of work performed on the database, consisting of one or more operations that must be executed atomically, consistently, isolated, and durably (ACID properties). Database systems ensure the integrity of transactions through concurrency control and recovery mechanisms.
  • Data Integrity and Security: Database systems enforce data integrity constraints to maintain the accuracy and consistency of data. They also implement security measures such as access control, authentication, and encryption to protect sensitive information from unauthorized access.
  • Database Administration: Database administrators (DBAs) are responsible for tasks such as database installation, configuration, backup and recovery, performance tuning, and monitoring to ensure the efficient and reliable operation of the database system.
  • Data Warehousing and Data Mining: Advanced database systems support data warehousing and data mining techniques for extracting insights and patterns from large volumes of data, enabling informed decision-making and strategic planning.

Types of DBMS

There are mainly four types of DBMS:

  • Relational DBMS
  • Hierarchical DBMS
  • Network DBMS
  • Object-oriented DBMS


Out of these four, the most widely used DBMS is the Relational DBMS. Some commonly used Relational DBMS are ‘Oracle Database’, ‘MySQL’, ‘Microsoft SQL Server’, and ‘IBM DB2’. 

Read About - Specialization and Generalization in DBMS

DBMS for Placement

During a placement interview, you will definitely be asked to answer questions about DBMS. In order to ace your placement interview, it is necessary to know about DBMS. You can definitely take up a DBMS course for placement, you can take up a DBMS course online, or join an institute that will train you in DBMS. The courses will prepare you for the questions asked on DBMS in software engineering interviews. You need to practice running SQL commands on Databases to get a better understanding of DBMS.

Most of the questions asked in interviews for the position of a Database Engineer are on SQL (Structured Query Language) commands and RDBMS terms like, ‘What are Joins?’, ‘What are the fundamentals of SQL commands used when running a query?’

So what are the fundamentals of SQL commands used while running a query?

The fundamentals of SQL commands:

  • Data Definition Language(DDL) – It contains the commands
    • CREATE
    • ALTER
    • DROP
    • RENAME


The DDL is used to create or modify, in simple terms, ‘define’ the objects of the database or its structure.


The DML is used to manipulate the database according to the user by running queries. These are the most common codes used while working with Databases. It lets you change the data by updating a value, inserting a value, or deleting it from the Database.

  • Data Query Language (DQL) – It contains the commands
    • SELECT


The DQL is used to run queries on the Database. The ‘SELECT’ command allows the user to nitpick whatever he or she wants from a Database. The SELECT command can be used with other commands like ‘WHERE’ and ‘HAVING’, to pick out specific portions of data from a Database by conditions according to the user’s requirements.

  • Data Control Language (DCL) – It contains the commands
    • GRANT 
    • REVOKE


The DCL is used to specify access to users over a Database. If 100 people are working on a particular Database, the Database Administrator can grant or revoke access to particular parts of the Database depending on what he wants the Database Engineers to work with.

  • Transaction Control Language (TCL) – It contains the commands
    • COMMIT


The TCL is used to deal with the transactions in the Database. The COMMIT command lets a user save the Database after its last query is processed, whilst the ROLLBACK lets the user undo the changes made with the last query processed on the Database. You can learn all of this by taking up a DBMS course online.

Also Read - Cardinality In DBMS

Frequently Asked Questions

What is basic principle of DBMS?

The basic principle of a DBMS (Database Management System) is to provide a centralized, efficient, and secure platform for storing, managing, and accessing structured data.

What are the components of DBMS?

Components of DBMS: Data, Hardware, Software, Users, Procedures.

Where can I learn a DBMS course?

We are in the era of Digitalisation. There are many e-courses available over the internet, all you need to do is search on Google.

What are the 4 types of DBMS?

The four types of DBMS are Relational, Hierarchical, Network, and Object-oriented DBMS.

Are there any prerequisites for taking up a DBMS course?

Whilst speaking about a DBMS course eligibility there are no prerequisites for coding. DBMS like MySQL has its own syntax which is a bit different from languages like C++ or Java. A prior experience of Spreadsheets might help in visualising the data that you’re going to be working with.

Does a DBMS course certification help in getting a job?

The short answer is yes. Although no one is going to ask you if you have a DBMS certification during your interview, you have the option to take up DBMS courses with certificates. This will make your resume look trustworthy if you’re applying for a job role in DBMS.

What are the career prospects available after learning DBMS?

Databases find their way in almost every career path right now, starting from a Financial Analyst to a Machine Learning Engineer. Some direct job roles in DBMS are Database Engineer, Database Administrator, Information Security Analyst, Market Research Analyst.

What DBMS should I learn first?

Although there is a wide variety to choose from, MySQL is probably the most popular DBMS currently in use.


As DBMS allows us to work with data in real-time, two engineers working on the same Database, sitting on the opposite sides of the globe will be able to instantly see any changes made on the other side, there is almost no delay. Databases allow us to handle enormous amounts of data at once and offer a stable and secure environment as they can grant or revoke access to users.

Also read -  Aggregation in DBMS

A person working with a Dataset in a Database might not be able to view or work with the other Datasets in the same Database as he or she might not have access to it. As a software engineer, DBMS is one of the most essential fields that you must train yourself in or have substantial knowledge about.

Even Machine Learning Engineers use Databases to create computational models. Almost all companies out there, including Google, Amazon, Microsoft, and Oracle use DBMS for their operations.

You can also consider our Database Management Course to give your career an edge over others!

Topics covered
What is a Database?
What is DBMS?
Fundamentals of DataBase System
Types of DBMS
DBMS for Placement
Frequently Asked Questions
What is basic principle of DBMS?
What are the components of DBMS?
Where can I learn a DBMS course?
What are the 4 types of DBMS?
Are there any prerequisites for taking up a DBMS course?
Does a DBMS course certification help in getting a job?
What are the career prospects available after learning DBMS?
What DBMS should I learn first?