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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
What is an object?
2.1.
Everything in Python is an Object 
3.
Accessing Object's variables in Python
3.1.
Python
3.2.
Accessing Object's functions in Python
3.3.
Python
3.4.
Modifying Object's properties in Python
3.5.
Python
3.6.
Deleting Object's properties in Python
3.7.
Python
3.8.
Consider the following 
4.
Built-in Class and User Class 
5.
Frequently Asked Questions
5.1.
Q. What is an object in Python example?
5.2.
Q. Why is Python an object?
5.3.
Q. What is the class and object?
5.4.
Q. What is object in programming?
6.
Conclusion 
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
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How everything in Python is an Object?

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Introduction

Python deservedly has a reputation for being an easy language to read and write. It’s got great documentation and a community that is very welcoming to beginners.

As we dig deeper, we may find many aspects of the Python language that surprise us, as one aspect that deserves in-depth explanation is How Everything in Python is an Object? Since Python is an object-oriented programming language, everything in Python is an object, every integer, string, list, and function. Before discussing how everything in Python is an object, let's discuss What is an object?

Introduction image

Also see, Python Round Function

What is an object?

Since we already know that Python is an object-oriented programming language and also that Everything in Python is an object, the main point of discussion here is first, what is an object? So In object-oriented programming languages like Python, an object is an entity that contains data along with associated metadata or functionality; these data contained in an object are known as the object’s data attributes. These attributes are simply variables that reference the data. The procedures or series of activities conducted in a certain order or manner that an object performs are known as the methods. An object’s methods are functions that perform operations on the object's data attributes.

There can be multiple instances of an object in a program. Different programming languages define “object” in different ways. In some, it means that all objects must-have attributes and methods; in others, it simply means that all objects are subclassable. In Python programming language, its definition is looser as some objects have neither attributes nor methods, and not all objects are subclassable.

But the statement that “Everything in Python is an object” means that it can be assigned to a variable or passed as an argument to a function. So the objects are the building blocks of an object-oriented program, as the program that uses object-oriented technology is basically a collection of objects. Hence programs written in python are also a collection of these objects in the form of variables. So it is important to revise everything in Python object, meaning that the strings are objects, Lists are objects, Functions are objects, and Even modules are objects.

Also See, Intersection in Python

Everything in Python is an Object 

In Python, almost everything is an object, whether a number, a function, or a module. Python is using a pure object model where classes are instances of a meta-class “type” in Python, the terms “type” and “class” are synonyms. And “type” is the only class that is an instance of itself. This object model can be useful when we want information about a particular resource in Python. Except for the Python keywords like “if def, globals”, using type(<name>) or dir(<name>) or just typing the resource name and pressing enter- it will work on pretty much anything. Let’s make it clear what this statement means “Everything in Python is an object”.

Must Read Python List Operations

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Accessing Object's variables in Python

To access the variable value in python, you can use the dot(.) notation. Accessing object variables, also known as a data value or attribute, can be done by using a dot.

To understand this better, let's consider an example: The __init__ method in Python classes gets called when you create an instance of the class

  • Python

Python

class EmployeeDetails:
def __init__(self, empname, empid):
self.empname = empname
self.empid = empid

my_instance = EmployeeDetails(empname="Rohan", empid=5)


print(my_instance.empname)
print(my_instance.empid)

Output

Output

Accessing Object's functions in Python

In Python, you can access function values using dot notation. In Python, using the dot(notation), you can invoke or call a method. Let's see the below example for a better understanding: 

  • Python

Python

class EmployeeDetails:
def __init__(self, empname, empid):
self.empname = empname
self.empid = empid

def details(self):
return f"{self.empname,self.empid}!"
Employee = EmployeeDetails(empname="Mohit Khatri", empid=150176)
show = Employee.details()
print(show)

Output

Output

Modifying Object's properties in Python

In Python, you can access function values and also modify them using dot notation. In Python, using the dot(notation), you can assign a new value in the method. Let's see the example below for a better understanding: 

  • Python

Python

class EmployeeDetails:
def __init__(self, empname, empid):
self.empname = empname
self.empid = empid

def show(self):
return f"{self.empname, self.empid}"

Employee = EmployeeDetails(empname="Ria Jain", empid = 6789)

print(f"Before update: {Employee.empname} Employeeid is {Employee.empid}")


Employee.empname = "Shivam Rajput"
Employee.empid = 4789

print(f"After update: {Employee.empname} Employeeid is {Employee.empid}")

Output

Output

Deleting Object's properties in Python

To delete an object property in Python, del keyword is used. 

Syntax

del variable_name property

After deleting a property or class variable properties delete, you cannot access the deleted value. Once you delete the value of the object, and later when you try to access it, you encounter an error message. Below is an example for better understanding: 

  • Python

Python

class EmployeeDetails:
def __init__(self, empname, empid):
self.empname = empname
self.empid = empid

def show(self):
return f"{self.empname, self.empid}"

Employee = EmployeeDetails(empname="Ria Jain", empid = 6789)

print(f"Before delete: {Employee.empname} Employeeid is {Employee.empid}")

del Employee.empid
print(f"After delete: {Employee.empname} Employeeid is {Employee.empid}")

Output

Output

Consider the following 

Code

As we know it very well that Python has types; however, the types are linked not to the variable names but to the object themselves. Earlier in object-oriented programming languages like Python, an object is an entity that contains data along with associated metadata and/or functionality. In Python, everything is an object, which means every entity has some metadata called “attributes” and associated functionality called “methods”. These attributes and methods are accessed via the dot syntax.

For example, we saw that lists have an append method, which adds an item to the list and is accessed via the dot (“.”) syntax:

Code

While it might be expected for compound objects like lists to have attributes and methods, what is sometimes unexpected is that in Python even simple types have attached attributes and methods.

For example, numerical types have a real and image attribute that returns the real and imaginary part of the value, if viewed as a complex number.

Code

Methods are like attributes, except they are functions that you can call using opening and closing parentheses. For example, floating point numbers have a method called is_integer that checks whether the value is an integer. 

Code

When we say that everything in Python is an object, we really mean that everything is an object – even the attributes and methods of objects are themselves objects with their own type information:

Code

Implementation through C programming language:-

Let’s now dive into the C implementation to see how objects are represented.

Those objects are manipulated under the hood as a C structure called PyObject. Ironically, the CPython object model is implemented using C, a language that is not object-oriented. From there, we will notice the two following attributes:

  • Firstly a reference count, which keeps track of how many other objects and variables reference it. This is changed in the C code through the macros Py_INCREF() and Py_DECREF().
     
  • Secondly, a type (PyTypeObject structure), allows Python to determine the type or class of the object at runtime. That type contains various methods used to describe the class's behavior. What function to call to allocate the type, to deallocate the type, to cast as a number, etc?
     

Also Read About, Divmod in Python

Built-in Class and User Class 

Python comes with some built-in classes, such as int, str, and list, but also functions or classes. Contrary to a language such as Ruby, where everything is also an object, Python does not allow adding new attributes or methods to the built-in types such as int or str.

The declarations of these objects are in the Include directory, and we can find in Object the various implementations of several types:

int (Objects/longobject.c), str (Objects/unicodeobject.c), list (Objects/listobject.c), user-defined classes (Objects/classobject.c), functions (Objects/funcobject.c), etc.

Each of those files defines a PyTypeObject instance which represents the type. Each PyTypeObject instance contains mostly functions that describe the behavior of the type.

For example, tp_getattro and tp_setattro, when defined, are the functions that allow to respectively read and assign a value to an attribute. The absence of tp_setattro for the “int” type explains why it is not possible to add or change an attribute to an integer. tp_as_sequence and tp_as_mapping point to lists of methods to handle standard functions for functions and dictionaries.

When the program is defining a user class, the runtime creates a new type for that class.

Check out this article - String slicing in Python.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What is an object in Python example?

In Python, everything is treated as an object, including lists, sets, variables, functions, tuples, etc. All these are considered objects in Python. Objects are nothing but an attribute or key to understanding object-oriented technology. 

Q. Why is Python an object?

Like any other programming language, python allows you to define the classes and later create objects of those classes. A class in python is a collection of instance variables and methods that help in defining the object for that class. 

Q. What is the class and object?

A class is nothing but a blueprint for creating objects. It is like an object constructor. An object is an instance of a class that helps in defining the class methods and variables. 

Q. What is object in programming?

An object in programming is defined as a data field that consists of unique fields and its values. It contains the information of uniquely identifying the attributes. An object in Python is created using the constructor of the class and then this object will be called as instance of the class. 

Conclusion 

After discussing a lot about how everything in python is an object? We conclude that actually, object-oriented programming is a way of thinking; it’s a method to model our code in reality and a lot easier to read, Objects are a pretty intuitive way of grouping things together that are similar by defining a template of the generalized concept of that thing and its associated attributes and methods. So an object is an abstraction that allows us to program without having to manually keep track of every little thing.

Objects have two purposes firstly, it holds data, and it has functions to perform some work; these functions may or may not be used and/or change the data of the object. So we will clearly understand that “Everything in Python is an object” is only a phrase that makes sense when we switch our learning of programming languages from C language to Python programming language and if someone is a beginner and start learning from python itself, then it is always should be in mind because in Python data and appropriate functions are mixed up together in objects.

We can understand it by taking an example of Numbers as a number in C is called primitive. But in Python, a number is an object as it may be manipulated in various ways as that number may be a ‘Prime Number’ or ‘Even Number,’ and we give them some specific functions and properties. 

Recommended Readings:

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