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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Why is Java 11 important?
3.
2.Which JDK build should I download & what are the benefits of each of them?
3.1.
Oracle JDK
3.2.
OpenJDK
4.
3. How to download Java 11 Free Version?
4.1.
Select Java 11
4.2.
Install Java 11
4.3.
Verify Installation
5.
4. Java 11 Features
5.1.
Running Java File with Single Command
6.
New Utility Methods in String Class
6.1.
Example
7.
Nested Based Access Control
7.1.
JEP 321: HTTP Client
7.2.
Reading/Writing Strings to and from the Files
7.3.
JEP 328: Flight Recorder
8.
Removed Features and Options
8.1.
Deprecated Features and Options
9.
Frequently Asked Questions
9.1.
Can I use Java 11 features in older versions of Java?
9.2.
Is Java 11 free for commercial use?
9.3.
How do I ensure my code is compatible with Java 11?
10.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
Easy

Java 11 Features

Author Ravi Khorwal
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Introduction

Java 11 plays very crucial role in the evolution of this versatile programming language, offering a blend of enhanced features & performance improvements. With Java 11, developers gain access to a more refined & efficient coding experience, pushing the boundaries of what's possible with Java. 

Java 11 Features

This article unpacks the essentials of Java 11, from its importance to the newest features it brings to the table. Whether you're a seasoned Java veteran or just starting out, you'll find valuable insights into making the most of Java 11's capabilities.

Why is Java 11 important?

Java 11 stands out as a Long-Term Support (LTS) version, which means it's a major release for the Java community. LTS versions are crucial because they guarantee extended support & updates for several years, making them a stable foundation for large-scale projects. Java 11's significance lies not only in its long-term stability but also in the introduction of new features that streamline development tasks, enhance security, and improve performance. It's the first version to not only maintain but also improve upon the legacy left by its predecessors, ensuring that Java remains a top choice for developers around the world.

For instance, Java 11 enhances the language's efficiency by introducing new features like running Java files with a single command, which simplifies the execution process & speeds up testing and debugging. It also adds handy utility methods to the String class, making string manipulation more straightforward. Furthermore, Java 11 takes a step forward in modernizing Java with the introduction of local-variable syntax for lambda parameters, enhancing readability and reducing boilerplate code.

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2.Which JDK build should I download & what are the benefits of each of them?

When it comes to downloading Java 11, you'll find two main types of JDK builds: the Oracle JDK and the OpenJDK. Both serve the same purpose but come with different licensing & support models.

Oracle JDK

This version is provided by Oracle and comes with commercial support for those who need it. It's ideal for businesses looking for long-term support, security updates, and performance enhancements for critical applications. The Oracle JDK is known for its stability and enterprise-grade reliability.

OpenJDK

On the other hand, OpenJDK is an open-source implementation of the Java Platform, Standard Edition. It's free to use and is a great choice for developers working on open-source projects or who do not require commercial support. The OpenJDK is regularly updated and contributed to by a vibrant community of developers, ensuring it stays up-to-date with the latest features and security patches.

Choosing between the Oracle JDK and OpenJDK often comes down to your specific needs and preferences. If you're developing open-source projects or experimenting with Java, OpenJDK is a practical choice. For enterprise environments where support and stability are paramount, the Oracle JDK might be the better option.

Both builds offer the full suite of Java 11 features, so regardless of your choice, you'll have access to all the new enhancements and improvements Java 11 has to offer.


3. How to download Java 11 Free Version?

Downloading the free version of Java 11 is straightforward, especially if you opt for the OpenJDK version, which is available under an open-source license. Here's a simple guide to get you started:

Visit the Official OpenJDK Site: Start by navigating to the official OpenJDK website jdk.java.net. This site hosts the latest versions of OpenJDK, including Java 11.

Select Java 11

Look for Java 11 among the available versions and click on it. You'll be directed to a page with the Java 11 builds.

Download the Appropriate Build: Choose the build suitable for your operating system (Windows, macOS, Linux). Click on the download link, and the download will start automatically.

Install Java 11

Once downloaded, run the installer and follow the on-screen instructions to install Java 11 on your machine.

Verify Installation

To ensure Java 11 is installed correctly, open a command prompt or terminal and type java -version. If Java 11 is successfully installed, you should see the version number displayed in the output.

Remember, OpenJDK provides all the essential features of Java 11 free of charge, making it an excellent option for students, individual developers, and open-source projects.

4. Java 11 Features

Java 11 introduces a series of new features & improvements that enhance the language's functionality and developer experience. Let's delve into some of the notable enhancements:

Running Java File with Single Command

Java 11 simplifies the execution of Java programs by allowing you to run a single-file Java program without compiling it explicitly. This feature is particularly handy for testing small snippets of code or for educational purposes.

// Example.java
public class Example {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Hello, Java 11!");
    }
}


To run this, simply use the command:

java Example.java


This command compiles and runs the Example.java file in one go, outputting "Hello, Java 11!" to the console.

New Utility Methods in String Class

Java 11 introduces new utility methods to the String class, making string manipulation more intuitive and efficient.

  • isBlank(): Checks if the string is empty or contains only whitespace.
     
  • lines(): Returns a stream of lines extracted from the string, handy for processing multiline input.
     
  • repeat(int): Repeats the string the specified number of times.
     
  • strip(), stripLeading(), stripTrailing(): Strip whitespace from the entire string, the beginning, or the end of the string, respectively.

Example


String str = " Java 11 \n is \n awesome! ";
System.out.println(str.lines().collect(Collectors.toList()));
System.out.println("Repeat: " + "Java11 ".repeat(3));
System.out.println("Strip: '" + str.strip() + "'");
Local-Variable Syntax for Lambda Parameters


Java 11 enhances lambda expressions by allowing you to use the var keyword in lambda parameters, improving readability and consistency with local variable syntax.

(var s1, var s2) -> s1 + s2


This makes the code more concise and clear, especially when using annotations with lambda parameters.

Nested Based Access Control

Java 11 improves access control to nested classes, making it easier to manage and more intuitive. This enhances encapsulation and readability when dealing with nested classes.

JEP 321: HTTP Client

Java 11 introduces a new HTTP Client API that supports HTTP/2. This API is versatile, supporting synchronous and asynchronous programming models, making it easier to handle HTTP requests and responses.

HttpClient client = HttpClient.newHttpClient();
HttpRequest request = HttpRequest.newBuilder()
        .uri(URI.create("http://example.com"))
        .build();
HttpResponse<String> response = client.send(request, BodyHandlers.ofString());
System.out.println(response.body());


This example demonstrates a simple GET request, showcasing the ease of use and improved functionality of the new HTTP Client.

Reading/Writing Strings to and from the Files

Java 11 makes reading and writing strings to files more straightforward, eliminating the need for boilerplate code.

// Writing to a file

Files.writeString(Path.of("example.txt"), "Sample text", StandardOpenOption.CREATE);


// Reading from a file

String content = Files.readString(Path.of("example.txt"));
System.out.println(content);


This simplifies file operations, making code cleaner and more readable.

JEP 328: Flight Recorder

Java Flight Recorder (JFR) is a tool integrated into the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) that collects diagnostic and profiling data about a running Java application. Java 11 makes JFR available for all users, aiding in monitoring and diagnosing performance issues.

Removed Features and Options

Java 11 also removes certain features and options that were deprecated in previous versions, such as the Java EE and CORBA modules, and the Nashorn JavaScript engine. This streamlining helps focus development on more widely used features and reduces the JVM's footprint.

Deprecated Features and Options

Some features and APIs have been marked as deprecated in Java 11, signaling that they may be removed in future releases. Developers are encouraged to avoid using deprecated features and to plan for their eventual removal.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can I use Java 11 features in older versions of Java?

Most Java 11 features are exclusive to this version & later. While some backports or polyfills might offer similar functionality, they can't fully replicate the experience. It's best to upgrade to Java 11 to take full advantage of these new features.

Is Java 11 free for commercial use?

Yes, Java 11 is free for commercial use under the OpenJDK version, which is open-source. However, if you opt for the Oracle JDK, be aware of its licensing terms, as it might require a commercial license for certain uses.

How do I ensure my code is compatible with Java 11?

Testing your application thoroughly is key. Utilize tools like jdeps to analyze dependencies & potential issues. Consider modularizing your application to leverage Java's module system for better encapsulation and reliability.

Conclusion

Java 11 stands as a pivotal release in the Java ecosystem, offering a mix of innovative features, performance enhancements, and long-term support. Its introduction of features like running Java files with a single command, new String methods, and the HTTP Client API, among others, streamlines development workflows and opens up new possibilities for Java applications. Whether you're developing complex enterprise applications or working on personal projects, Java 11 provides a robust, efficient, and modern platform for your development needs. Embracing Java 11 means staying at the forefront of technology, ready to tackle the challenges of modern software development with confidence and expertise.

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