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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Computer Networks
3.
Questions
4.
FAQs
5.
Key Takeaways
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
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Miscellaneous Computer Networks

Author Saksham Gupta
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Introduction

Computer Networks are the foundation of any coding interview. As a result, it is critical to have a solid understanding of this subject. But don't be concerned about any of it. Ninjas are here to help, and today we'll talk about miscellaneous computer network questions.

Computer Networks

A computer network is a collection of devices linked together by links. A node can be a computer, printer, or any other device that can send or receive data. Communication channels are the links that connect the nodes. A computer network employs distributed processing, which divides tasks among multiple computers. Instead, one computer handles the entire task, while each separate computer handles a subset

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Questions

1. A transmission in serial Each character has 8 information bits, 2 start bits, 1 stop bit, and 1 parity bit. T2 synchronous transmission employs three eight-bit sync characters, which are followed by thirty-eight-bit information characters. What are the transfer rates of Ti and T2 if the bit rate in both cases is 1200 bits/second?

  1. 100 characters/sec, 153 characters/sec
  2. 80 characters/sec, 136 characters/sec
  3. 100 characters/sec, 136 characters/sec
  4. 80 characters/sec, 153 characters/sec
     

Answer: (c) 100 characters/sec, 136 characters/sec
Explanation:  Communication in serial:

The total number of bits transmitted is equal to 8 + 2 + 1 + 1 = 12 bits.

Bit rate = 1200 bits per second.

Transfer Rate = 1200 * (8/12) = 800 bits per second = 100 bytes per second = 100 characters per second

Transmission that is synchronous:

Total number of transmitted bits = 3 + 30 = 33 bits

1200 * (30/33) = 1090.90 bits/sec Transfer Rate

The given size of a single character is 8 bits.

As a result, Transfer Rate = 1090.90 bits/sec = 1090/8 = 136 characters/sec.

So,

As a result, option (C) is correct.

2. Because it is a switch network, each packet passes through two links, one from source to switch and the other from switch to destination. Two packets are sent because there are 10000 bits and the packet size is 5000. Each packet takes 5000 / 107 microseconds to transmit. A packet switch with 107 bit per second links connects two hosts. The propagation delay of each link is 20 microseconds. 35 microseconds after receiving a packet, the switch begins forwarding it. If 10000 bits of data are to be transmitted between two hosts using a packet size of 5000 bits, the time elapsed between the transmission of the first bit of data and the reception of the last bit of data is the time elapsed between the transmission of the first bit of data and the reception of the last bit of data is the time elapsed between the transmission of the first bit of data, and the reception of the last bit of data is the time elapsed?

  1. 1075
  2. 1575
  3. 2220
  4. 2200.
     

Answer: (b) 1575.
Explanation: The sender host sends the first packet to the switch; the transmission time is 5000/107, or 500 microseconds. The second packet is sent after 500 microseconds. In 500 + 35 + 20 + 20 + 500 = 1075 microseconds, the first packet arrives at its destination. While the first packet is traveling to its destination, the second packet begins its journey after 500 microseconds, and the remainder of the time taken by the second packet overlaps with the time taken by the first packet. As a result, the total time is 1075 + 500 = 1575.

3. Host A sends a UDP datagram containing 8880 bytes of user data to host B over an Ethernet LAN. Ethernet frames can transport up to 1500 bytes of data (MTU = 1500 bytes). The UDP header is 8 bytes in length, while the IP header is 20 bytes in length. There is no option field in the IP header. How many IP fragments will be sent in total, and what will be in the offset field in the last fragment?

  1. 6 and 925
  2. 6 and 7400
  3. 7 and 1110
  4. 7 and 8880
     

Answer: (c) 7 and 1110.
Explanation:

UDP data = 8880 bytes

UDP header = 8 bytes

IP Header = 20 bytes

Total Size excluding IP Header = 8888 bytes.

Number of fragments  = ⌈ 8888 / 1480 ⌉  = 7

Offset of last segment = (1480 * 6) / 8 = 1110

4. Which of the following statements about a transparent bridge and a router is NOT correct?

  1. Both a bridge and a router forward data packets selectively. 
  2. A bridge uses IP addresses, whereas a router uses MAC addresses. 
  3. A bridge builds its routing table by inspecting incoming packets 
  4. A router can connect a LAN and a WAN.
     

Answer: (b) A bridge uses IP addresses, whereas a router uses MAC addresses.
Explanation: Bridges connect two or more networks to form a larger network. A bridge only works up to the second layer, implementing the Physical and Data Link layers. As a result, it does not use IP addresses for routing.

5. Which one of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. TCP ensures a minimum communication rate 
  2. TCP guarantees on-time delivery 
  3. TCP responds to congestion by reducing the size of the sender window 
  4.  To compensate for packet loss, TCP employs retransmission.
     

Answer: (a) TCP ensures a minimum communication rate.
Explanation: TCP does not provide a fixed throughput as a service. Hence option (a), TCP ensures a minimum communication rate, is false.

Therefore option (a) is correct.

6. Which one of the following statements is FALSE.

  1. TCP is used to transport HTTP
  2. The structure of web pages is described by HTTP
  3. HTTP enables the storage of data in a URL
  4.  HTTP can be used to validate a hypertext link.
     

Answer: (b)The structure of web pages is described by HTTP
Explanation: HTML, not HTTP, describes the structure of a page.

HTTP is a set of rules for transferring files on the World Wide Web (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files).

7. The window size of the transmitter in a sliding window ARQ scheme is N, and the window size of the receiver is M. The minimum number of distinct sequence numbers required to ensure the ARQ scheme's proper operation is

  1. min (M, N)
  2. max (M, N)
  3. M + N
  4. MN
     

Answer: (c) M + N.
Explanation: The sending process in a sliding window ARQ scheme sends a number of frames without worrying about receiving an ACK (acknowledgment) packet from the receiver. In general, the sending window size is N, and the receiver window size is 1. This means it can send N frames to its peer before requiring an acknowledgment. The receiver keeps track of the sequence number of the next frame it expects to receive and sends it with each ACK. However, in the case of the question, the sender window size is N, and the receiver window size is M, so the receiver will accept M frames rather than 1 frame in general. As a result, M sequence numbers are sent along with the acknowledgment.

As a result, in order for such a scheme to function properly, we will require a total of M+ N distinct sequence numbers.

8. Which of the following protocols is NOT used to convert one address format to another?

  1. DNS
  2. ARP
  3. DHCP
  4. RARP
     

Answer: (c) DHCP.
Explanation: DNS is a service that converts domain names to IP addresses. ARP is a protocol that converts IP addresses to MAC addresses. RARP is a program that converts MAC addresses to IP addresses. As a result, all three protocols are used to convert one type of address to another. DHCP is used to dynamically assign IP addresses, which means it does not resolve addresses. As a result, (C) DHCP is the correct answer.

9. Determine the correct order in which the following packets are transmitted on the network by a host when a browser requests a webpage from a remote server, assuming that the host has recently been restarted.

  1. HTTP GET request, DNS query, TCP SYN
  2. DNS query, HTTP GET request, TCP SYN
  3. DNS query, TCP SYN, HTTP GET request
  4. TCP SYN, DNS query, HTTP GET request
     

Answer: (d)  Both S1 and S2 are correct.
Explanation: 

Step 1: Whenever a client requests a webpage, the query is formatted as www.hello.org.As soon as the query is sent, the server performs a DNS query to determine the Domain Name Space. DNS query is the process of determining the IP address of a DNS server, such as www.org. The client's computer will send a DNS query to one of the DNS servers provided by the client's internet service provider.

Step 2: Once the DNS server has been located, a TCP connection must be established for further communication. By sending a TCP SYN message, the TCP protocol requests that the server establish a connection.
Step 3: Once the connection is established, the HTTP protocol is invoked. It requests the webpage via its GET method, resulting in an HTTP GET request.

As a result, the correct packet transmission sequence is DNS query, TCP SYN, HTTP GET request.

10. A firewall must be configured to allow hosts on a private network to open TCP connections and send packets over open connections. It will, however, only allow external hosts to send packets over existing open TCP connections or connections that are being opened (by internal hosts), but not to open TCP connections to hosts on the private network. To accomplish this, the firewall's minimum capability should be that of

  1. A combinational circuit
  2. A finite automaton
  3. A pushdown automaton with one stack
  4. A pushdown automaton with two stacks
     

Answer: (d)  A pushdown automaton with two stacks.
Explanation: 
(a) A combinational circuit => Not possible because we need memory in the firewall, and the combinational ckt does not have any.

(b) A finite automaton => We require infinite memory; there is no upper limit on the number of TCP ckt, so this is not an option.

(c) A pushdown automaton with a single stack => The stack is infinite. If we have two connections and have pushed the details of one of them to the stack, we cannot access the details of the connection that was pushed first without popping it off. So, a big NO.

(d) TM is a pushdown automaton with two stacks. It can perform all of the functions of a standard computer. Yes. TM can be used to build a firewall.

11. How many bytes of data can be sent in 15 seconds over a serial link in asynchronous mode with a baud rate of 9600, odd parity, and two stop bits in the frame?

  1. 10,000 bytes
  2. 12,000 bytes
  3. 15,000 bytes
  4. 27,000 bytes
     

Answer: (b) 12,000 bytes

Explanation: 

"9600 baud" means that the serial port is capable of transferring a 

maximum of 9600 bits per second.

1 sec--------> 9600 bits

15 sec------->9600*15 bits

Total Data To send in 1 frame = 1 bit(start) + 8 bits(char size) + 1 bit(Parity) + 2 bits(Stop) 

= 12 bits.

Number of 8-bit characters that can be transmitted per second  = (9600 * 15)/12 = 12000 bytes.

12. Which protocol will be used to automate the IP configuration mechanism, which includes information such as IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS?

  1. SMTP
  2.  DHCP
  3.  ARP
  4.  TCP/IP
     

Answer: (b) DHCP.
Explanation: DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is used to provide IP information to network hosts, including IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS information.

13. Every sixth packet is lost in the Go–back 3 flow control protocol. Suppose we are required to send 11 packets. How many transmissions are required?

  1. 10
  2. 17
  3. 12
  4.  9
     

Answer: (b) 17.
Explanation: If we do not receive acknowledgment for a packet in Go back N, the entire window of that packet is sent again. When a packet is received, the window is slid.

The window size is 3 in this case. Initially, the window will contain 1,2,3; however, an acknowledgment of 1 is received, the window will slide so that 4 is transmitted. When the acknowledgment for the fourth packet is received, the seventh packet is sent, and when the acknowledgment for the fifth packet is received, the eighth packet is sent. Because acknowledgment of 6 is not received, the window of 6 packets, i.e., 6,7,8 packets, is retransmitted. Now that the sixth packet from there is 9, packets 9,10 will be retransmitted.

These are packet serial transmissions: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 9 10 11

Hence total of 17 transmissions are needed.

14. What will be the total minimum bandwidth of the channel required for 7 channels of 400 kHz bandwidth multiplexed together with each guard band of 20 kHz?

  1. 2800 kHz
  2. 2600 kHz
  3. 3600 kHz
  4. 2920 kHz
     

Answer: (d) 2920.
Explanation: (for 6 guard band 20 * 6 = 120) + (for 7 channels 400* 7= 2800)

= 120+ 2800 = 2920 kHz

15. The INCORRECT pair of OSI protocol layer/sub-layer and its functionality is shown in the following pairs?

  1. Network layer and Routing
  2. Data Link Layer and Bit synchronization
  3. Transport layer and End-to-end process communication
  4. Medium Access Control sub-layer and Channel sharing
     

Answer: (b) Data Link Layer and Bit synchronization.
Explanation:

(a) Yes, the network layer employs rotation.

(b) No, the Physical Layer provides bit synchronization.

(c) Yes, the Transport layer does support end-to-end process communication.

(d) Yes, the Data Link Layer's Medium Access Control sub-layer supports channel sharing.

16. Which of the following statements about a transparent bridge and a router is FALSE?

  1. Both a bridge and a router forward data packets selectively. 
  2. A bridge uses IP addresses, whereas a router uses MAC addresses. 
  3. A bridge builds its routing table by inspecting incoming packets 
  4.  A router can connect a LAN and a WAN.
     

Answer: (b) A bridge uses IP addresses, whereas a router uses MAC addresses. 
Explanation: Bridges connect two or more networks to form a larger network. A bridge only works up to the second layer, implementing the Physical and Data Link layers. As a result, it does not use IP addresses for routing.

As a result, option (b) is correct.

17. In networking terminology UTP means

  1. Uniquitous Teflon port
  2. Uniformly terminating port
  3. Unshielded twisted pair
  4. Unshielded T-connector port
     

Answer: (c) Unshielded twisted pair.
Explanation: Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) is a type of cable. It is made up of two unshielded wires that have been twisted together. These are widely used in LANs and telephone cables.

18. What is the number of cable links required for a fully connected mesh and a star topology if there are n devices (nodes) in a network?

  1. n(n −1) / 2, n
  2. n, n −1
  3. n −1, n
  4. n −1, n(n −1) / 2
     

Answer: (a) n(n −1) / 2, n.
Explanation: A fully connected mesh topology is a complete graph in which every node is connected to every other node.

As a result, the number of cable links with n nodes equals n(n-1)/2.

The number of cable links in a star topology equals n.

As a result, option(a) is correct.

19. What is WPA?

  1. wired protected access
  2. wi-fi protected access
  3. wired process access
  4. wi-fi process access
     

Answer: (b)  wi-fi protected access.
Explanation: 

WPA is an abbreviation for Wi-Fi Protected Access. It is a security standard for computing devices that have wireless internet access. WPA encrypts data and authenticates users on computing devices connected to a wireless network.

20. SATA is the abbreviation of

  1. Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
  2. Serial Advanced Technology Architecture
  3. Serial Advanced Technology Adapter
  4.  Serial Advanced Technology Array
     

Answer: (d)  Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
Explanation: 
Serial Advanced Technology Attachment is an abbreviation for Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. SATA is a computer Bus interface that connects host computer Bus adapters to mass storage devices such as hard discs. 

21. A computing architecture that uses computers from multiple administrative domains to achieve a common goal?

  1. Grid Computing
  2. Neutral Networks
  3. Parallel Processing
  4. Cluster Computing

 

Answer: (a) Grid Computing
Explanation: Grid computing is the gathering of computer resources from various locations to achieve a common goal. When each node in Grid computing is designed to perform a specific task, it is referred to as Cluster Computing.

22. What is the size of the lookup table if the frame buffer has 8 bits per pixel and 8 bits are allocated for each of the R, G, and B components?

  1. 24 bytes
  2. 1024 bytes
  3. 768 bytes
  4. 256 bytes
     

Answer: (c) Unshielded twisted pair.
Explanation: Number of indexes the framebuffer = 28 = 256

Size of each entry = 8 bits for R component + 8 bits for G component + 8 bits for B component = 24 bits = 3 Bytes

Size of frame buffer = 256 * 3 = 768 Bytes

23. How many characters (7 bits + parity) can be transmitted in a second on a 19.2 kbps line? Does this asynchronous transmission necessitate the use of one start bit and one stop bit?

  1. 192
  2. 240
  3. 1920
  4. 1966
     

Answer: (a) 1920.
Explanation: In synchronous transmission mode, the start and stop bits are always required, whereas, in asynchronous mode, they are not.

So the total number of bits in character for this connection is 7 data bits + 1 parity bit + 1 start bit + 1 stop bit = 10 bits.

19.2 kbps Bandwidth

Option (C) is correct. Number of characters transmitted in one second = (19.2 *1000)/10 = 1920

24. Which of the following is not a service offered by cloud computing?

  1. Infrastructure as a service
  2. Architecture as a service
  3. Software as a service
  4. Platform as a service
     

Answer: (b)  Architecture as a service
Explanation: Architecture as a service is not provided as a service in cloud computing.

25. The encoding technique used in Giga ethernet technology to transmit signals over fiber optic medium is

  1. Differential Manchester encoding
  2. Non return to zero
  3. 4B/5B encoding
  4. 8B/10B encoding
     

Answer: (d) 8B/10B encoding
Explanation: This scheme is used for byte synchronization as well as the encode/decode scheme, which sends 8 bits as part of a 10-bit code group. This scheme's characteristics include low-cost component design and high transition density for easy clock recovery. Giga-ethernet technology employs it over the fiber optic medium.

Must Read Subnetting in Computer Networks

FAQs

  1. What is a computer network?
    A computer network is a collection of devices linked together by links. A node can be a computer, printer, or any other device that can send or receive data. Communication channels are the links that connect the nodes. A computer network employs distributed processing, which divides tasks among multiple computers. Instead, one computer handles the entire task, while each separate computer handles a subset.
     
  2. A computing architecture that uses computers from multiple administrative domains to achieve a common goal?
    Grid computing is the gathering of computer resources from various locations to achieve a common goal. When each node in Grid computing is designed to perform a specific task, it is referred to as Cluster Computing.
     
  3. Which protocol will be used to automate the IP configuration mechanism, which includes information such as IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS?
    DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is used to provide IP information to network hosts, including IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and DNS information.
     
  4. In networking terminology UTP means?
    Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) is a type of cable. It is made up of two unshielded wires that have been twisted together. These are widely used in LANs and telephone cables.
     
  5. Is there any other Data Structures and Algorithms content in Coding Ninjas Studio?
    Yes, you may practice coding as well as answer frequently requested interview questions in Coding Ninjas Studio. The more we practice, the more probable it is that we will land a position at our desired company.

Key Takeaways

In this article, we have extensively discussed the top HTML interview questionsWe hope that this blog has helped you enhance your knowledge of HTML interview questions, and if you would like to learn more, check out our articles on Library. Do upvote our blog to help other ninjas grow. Happy Coding!

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