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Table of contents
MongoDB vs RavenDB
1. Horizontal Scaling / Sharding
2. Replication
3. Query Language
4. Indexing
5. Cloud Offering
6. Multi-Document Transactions
Key Takeaways
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

MongoDB vs RavenDB

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Non-tabular databases (sometimes known as "not just SQL") keep data differently than relational tables. The data model of NoSQL databases is used to classify them. The most popular types are document, key-value, wide-column, and graph. They feature adaptable schemas and can easily manage large amounts of data and high user loads.

Many NoSQL databases contain the following qualities at a high level:

  • Adaptable Schemas 
  • Horizontal scaling
  • queries are quick.
  • Simple to utilize.

This blog will compare two of the popular NoSQL databases, i.e., MongoDB and RavenDB.

Must Recommended Topic, Generalization in DBMS.

Recommended Topic, Schema in DBMS

MongoDB vs RavenDB

1. Horizontal Scaling / Sharding

  • Sharding at the database level allows Mongodb to scale horizontally. It is the process of dividing data into non-overlapping sub-datasets (known as chunks in MongoDB) and hosting each chunk on its machine. To make such an operation work, we'll need to create a sharding key that will indicate which server will host the page.
  • RavenDB does not support sharding at the database level.

Also See, difference between sql and nosql

2. Replication

  • The primary purpose of replication is to provide data redundancy and high availability. 
  • A replica set is used to achieve replication in MongoDB. Writer operations are submitted to the primary server (node), which replicates the data by applying the operations across secondary servers. If the primary server fails (due to a crash or a system failure), one of the secondary servers takes over and is elected to become the new primary node. When that server fully recovers, it becomes a secondary node, assisting the new primary node.


  • RavenDB does not replicate a single document at any given time. We send a huge amount of data at once when we need to replicate data between nodes. RavenDB determines the batch size and content based on criteria such as the amount of data to be transmitted, the number of documents to be delivered, and a few other implementation-dependent factors (such as the speed of replication). RavenDB assures that writes done in the same transaction will always be sent in a single batch to the other database instances, rather than being split into multiple batches. To put it another way, we retain atomicity across replication.

3. Query Language

  • MongoDB uses a JSON-like technique to query creation. 
  • The RavenDB client uses C# LINQ expressions (a mix between SQL and functional language pipelines) to allow users to express queries directly in code.

4. Indexing

  MongoDB RavenDB
Primary Indexes Yes Yes
Secondary Indexes Yes Yes
Auto Indexes No Yes
Multiple fields in one index Yes (Compound Index) Yes (Map Indexes)
Spatial Index Yes (GeoSpatial Index) Yes (Spatial Data)
Full-text Index Yes (Text Index) Yes (Full-Text Search)
Multi-collection indexes No Yes
Hierarchical indexes No Yes
Aggregate data in indexes No Yes

5. Cloud Offering

  • While RavenDB has a simple configuration tool, MongoDB Atlas has many more knobs and switches. 
  • Both services use the same pricing model: the first 1GB is free, after which you'll have to pay per gigabyte per month. 
  • RavenDB is slightly more expensive in a quick comparison.

6. Multi-Document Transactions

  • Multi-document transactions guarantee data integrity, give a globally consistent picture of data and impose all-or-nothing execution. The properties of the transactions will be as follows. All data changes made during a transaction are stored when it is committed.
  • Both support multi-document transactions, but they took different paths to get there. It was a design decision from the beginning in RavenDB, and it was added to MongoDB in version 3.4, with an actual implementation coming only in version 4.2. MongoDB transactions were limited to a total size of 16 MB until version 4.0. In version 4.2, this restriction was lifted.

Read about Batch Operating System and  Checkpoint in DBMS here.

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Property MongoDB RavenDB
Description One of the most popular document storage solutions, accessible as a fully managed cloud service as well as for self-managed infrastructure setup on the self-managed infrastructure Open Source Operational and Transactional Enterprise NoSQL Document Database
DB-Engines Ranking 

Score: 488.57

Rank: #5

Score: 3.25

Rank: #96

Primary database model Document store Document store
Secondary database models

Spatial DBMS

Search engine 

Time Series DBMS

Graph DBMS

Spatial DBMS

Time Series DBMS

Implementation language C++ C#
Data Scheme schema-free schema-free
Support of SQL Read-only SQL queries via the MongoDB Connector for BI SQL-like query language (RQL)
APIs and other access methods using JSON

.NET Client API

Java Client API

Python Client API


Transaction concepts Multi-document ACID Transactions with snapshot isolation ACID, Cluster-wide transaction available
Referential Integrity No No
Partitioning methods Sharding Sharing
Replication methods

Multi-Source deployments with MongoDB Atlas Global Clusters

Source-replica replication

Multi-source replication
User-defined map-reduce methods Yes Yes
Support for Concurrency Yes Yes
Support for making data persistent Yes Yes

You can also read about the Multiple Granularity Locking.

Also see, Multiple Granularity in DBMS


  1. What is meant by a NoSQL database?
    Rather than relational tables, NoSQL databases store data in documents. As a result, we categorize them as "not simply SQL" and divide them into different flexible data models.
  2. Is RavenDB a NoSQL?
    RavenDB is a NoSQL implementation that is simple to use and extremely fast.
  3. Why is MongoDB so popular?
    MongoDB is popular among new engineers because of its versatility and ease of use. Even though it's simple to use, it has all the features required to handle the sophisticated requirements of modern applications. Mongo is popular among developers because it saves all of its documents in JSON format.

Key Takeaways

In this blog, we learned about No-SQL databases. We compared two No-SQL databases - MongoDB and RavenDb based on various properties like Horizontal Scaling, Replication, Query Language, Indexing, Cloud Offering, Multi-Document Transactions, and many more.

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