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Table of contents
1.
Introduction 
2.
Network Address
3.
IPv4
4.
Classful Network Addressing
5.
Host ID
6.
Network ID
6.1.
Class A
6.2.
Class B   
6.3.
Class C
6.4.
Class D
6.5.
Class E
7.
FAQs
8.
Key Takeaways
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Network Addressing

Author Urwashi Priya
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Introduction 

This blog will discuss network addressing and all the types of addressing methods.

Every host in a network needs to have some address, otherwise we don’t know to which address the information will be transferred to. There are many hosts present in a network. Now, it’s logical that to send the information appropriate address must be known beforehand.

Recommended Topic, Basic Networking Commands

Network Address

In the telecommunication network, we need to uniquely identify a host or a machine. So, a logical or physical address to do the same is known as a network address. Internet Protocol (IP) address, Media Access Control (MAC) address are a few examples of network addresses. The Network address can be of any time, either numerical, symbolic, or both in a few cases.

The physical address assigned to a host is hard wired and present on read-only memory of network interface card is called as MAC address. The logical address are address that we can assign on a network. Example of logical address is ip address. Now, we will be discussing about ip address in detail.

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IPv4

  • IPv4 stands for Internet Protocol version 4.
  • It is a 32-bit address that is used to uniquely identify a connection of the device to the internet.
  • The address ground of IPv4 is 2^32. 
  • There are two types of notation to present the address.
    • Dotted Decimal Notation (represented as 128.11.3.23)
    • Binary Notation (represented as 10000000 00001011 00010101)

Classful Network Addressing

  • In Classful Network Addressing, the address ground is divided mainly into five classes: A, B, C, D, E.
  • In this type of network addressing, the first byte of all the classes deals with different ranges. For example,
    • The First byte in Class A will be from 0 - 127,
    • The First byte in Class B will be from 128 - 191,
    • The First byte in Class C will be from 192 - 223,
    • The First byte in Class D will be from 224 - 239,
    • The First byte in Class E will be from 240 - 255.
  • In these five classes, Classes A, B, C are for unicast, and Classes D and E are booked for multicasting and experimental purposes only. 
  • The class of the IP address is determined by order of bits in the first octet.
  • Each unique IP address is separated into two parts:
    • Host ID 
    • Network ID 

Host ID

  • The host ID is a kind of frame of an IP address that is used to uniquely identify the host on a particular IP/TCP network.
  • We can calculate the host id by getting the ‘AND’ between the IP address in binary form and the respective default Subnet mask in binary form only.

Network ID

  • It is a part of the IP address that is used to denote the network for a specified host.
  • Network ID length varies according to the classes. For example, The length of network ID is 8, 16, 24, 32, 32 for Classes A, B, C, D, E, respectively.

 

Now let’s discuss some parameters of each class one by one,

Class A

  • The length of the Network ID is 8 bits.
  • The length of the Host ID is 24 bits (32 - 8 bits).
  • The default subnet mask of class A is 255.0.0.0.
  • Class A network addressing is used for huge networks.

Class B   

  • The length of the Network ID is 16 bits.
  • The length of the Host ID is 16 bits.
  • The default subnet mask of class B is 255.255.0.0.
  • Class B network addressing is used for intermediate to huge networks.

Class C

  • The length of the Network ID is 24 bits.
  • The length of the Host ID is 8 bits.
  • The default subnet mask of class C is 255.255.255.0.
  • Class C network addressing is used for smaller networks.

Class D

  • The length of the Network ID is 32 bits.
  • The subnet mask of Class D is not defined yet.
  • Class D network addressing is used for multicasting.

Class E

  • The length of the network ID is 32 bits.
  • The subnet mask of Class E is not defined yet.
  • Class E network addressing is reserved for future experimental purposes.

FAQs

  1. What is the ‘And’ operator?
    ‘And’ is a logical operator, which gives the positive output if both the input values are greater than one and gives the negative output if both the input values or any one of the input values is zero.

A

B

A & B

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

   2. List all the problems associated with classful network addressing.

       A lot of addresses of classes A and B are wasted because it uses the ranges between 0 - 127 and 128 - 191, whereas, in Class C, the range is very small. Therefore, it will not serve all the needs of the organizations.

   3. How can we fix the problems associated with Classful network addressing?

       We can fix the problems associated with classful network addressing by using the following methods: Subnetting, Network Address Translation, MPLS,  ATM

Key Takeaways

In this article, we discussed network addressing and all the classes of network addressing.

If you think that this blog helped you share it with your friends!. Refer to the Computer network guided path for more information.

Until then, All the best for your future endeavours, and Keep Coding.

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