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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Types of Operating Systems
2.1.
Batch Processing
2.1.1.
Advantages
2.1.2.
Disadvantages
2.2.
Multiprogramming
2.2.1.
Advantages
2.2.2.
Disadvantages
2.3.
Multitasking
2.3.1.
Advantages
2.3.2.
Disadvantages
2.4.
Interactivity
2.4.1.
Advantages
2.4.2.
Disadvantages
2.5.
Real-time Systems
2.5.1.
Advantages
2.5.2.
Disadvantages
2.6.
Distributive Environment
2.6.1.
Advantages
2.6.2.
Disadvantages
2.7.
Spooling
2.7.1.
Advantages
2.7.2.
Disadvantages
3.
Frequently Asked Questions
3.1.
What is an Operating System?
3.2.
What is the primary purpose of the operating system?
3.3.
What is the difference between OS and RTOS?
3.4.
How do operating systems get created?
3.5.
What does increasing the number of cores do?
4.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Operating Systems Properties

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Operating System

Introduction

In this blog, we will learn about Operating System Properties. Operating Systems act as an interface between the system and the user for interaction. Operating Systems have multiple properties like managing and processing different kinds of jobs. In this article, we will learn about the various properties of operating systems, Types of operating systems and at last, we will discuss the faq’s regarding the operating systems.

Also Read About, FCFS Scheduling Algorithm, Multiprogramming vs Multitasking

Types of Operating Systems

There are many properties of Operating Systems. We will see some of the properties and discuss them in detail.

Batch Processing

In batch processing, Operating systems first gather all programs. After processing, make batches of jobs that have similar requirements. The primary goal of the batch processing system is to reduce setup time while submitting similar jobs to the CPU.

Batch Processing

Advantages

  • Multiple users can share the batch systems
  • The idle time for the batch system is significantly less
  • It is easy to manage significant work repeatedly in batch systems

Disadvantages

  • Debugging is quite difficult in Batch Processing.
  • It is possible that any job can enter into an infinite cycle.
  • One batch job impacts the pending jobs due to the lack of a protection strategy.

Multiprogramming

In multiprogramming, we are sharing the processor when two or more programs are loaded in the main memory simultaneously. But the processor executes only one job at a time. Multiprogramming improves CPU utilization efficiency. We can load multiple programs in a single processor using multiprogramming.

Multiprogramming

 

Advantages

  • Efficient CPU utilization.
  • The users assume that the CPU is simultaneously working on multiple programs.

Disadvantages

  • It needs CPU scheduling.
  • Memory management is required to accommodate different jobs in memory.

Multitasking

In multitasking, the CPU can execute multiple jobs simultaneously by switching among the job. The switching operations are fast enough so that the user can communicate with each program that is running at that moment.

Multitasking

Advantages

  • It supports numerous users simultaneously, and various apps can run concurrently without affecting the system performance.
  • Several users are happier due to the increased flexibility, i.e., each user can run single or multiple programs simultaneously.
  • It improves the response time of the system.
  • Multitasking uses resources in an efficient manner.

Disadvantages

  • The system can run the programs slowly because of the modest speed of the processors, and their reaction time may increase when processing multiple programs.
  • To finish the work in a multitasking system, numerous processors are busier simultaneously. Therefore, heat generation is more on multitasking.
  • It may negatively affect the speed of the system in the long run.

Check this out: Demand Paging in OS

Interactivity

Interactivity means the ability of the user to interact with the system. Interactivity involves different kinds of activities. Input and output devices are used for handling input and output operations. Interactivity provides an interface so that users can interact with the system.

Interactivity

Advantages

  • It is very easy to use.
  • It is beneficial for specially-abled people.

Disadvantages

  • It may cause noise pollution.
  • It isn't easy to design.

Real-time Systems

Real-time Systems are dedicated to Embedded Systems. In Real-time Systems, Operating Systems read and write using the sensor data. The Operating system assures that the event is completed within a fixed time interval to provide accurate performance.

Advantages

  • It gives a fast and timely response.
  • It is constrained by time restrictions and is more suitable for tasks. 

Disadvantages

  • It is highly complex when it comes to real-time operation.
  • Frequent program crashing occurs.

Distributive Environment

Multiple independent processors and CPUs are present in a single system in a Distributive Environment. This handles communication between processors via communication lines. It shares different computational logic among physical processors. Each processor has its local memory, and they do not share the memory.

Advantages

  • The failure of one processor will not affect the entire system.
  • Debugging is easy in the case of a distributive system.
  • There is no limit on processor numbers that can be added to the group.
  • It has very high processing power, similar to several computers.

Disadvantages

  • Software support is less in the distributive environment.
  • There is a security risk, and data integrity may be endangered.
  • It isn't easy to troubleshoot.
  • It is expensive to install a network in this setting.

See Distributed Operating Systems and Open Source Operating System

Spooling

Spooling stands for Simultaneous peripheral operation online. It is a method in which jobs are put into a buffer or any particular area in the memory so that a device can execute these jobs when they are ready. It improves system performance by increasing the working rate of the device.

Spooling

Advantages

  • Input-output operations for one job can overlap with processor operations for other jobs.
  • It enables applications to run at the speed of the CPU while input/output devices run at their maximum speed.
  • It supports multiple I/O devices simultaneously.
  • There is no link between the CPU and I/O devices during spooling. The CPU does not have to wait for I/O tasks to complete.

Disadvantages

  • It increases the disk traffic.
  • It requires a massive amount of storage, which is defined by the number of input requests and connected devices.

Since you get some idea of the Operating Systems Properties, We will close the article now with faqs.

You can also read about layered structure of operating system and, Multiprocessing Operating System

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Frequently Asked Questions

What is an Operating System?

An operating system acts as an interface between the user and the hardware. It allows users to input data, process it, and access the output. 

What is the primary purpose of the operating system?

The operating system (OS) manages all of the software and hardware on the computer. It performs basic tasks such as file, memory, and handling input and output, controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers, and process management.

What is the difference between OS and RTOS?

An operating system (OS) is responsible for managing the hardware resources of a computer and hosting applications that run on the computer. An RTOS performs these tasks but is also specially designed to run applications with exact timing and a high degree of reliability.

How do operating systems get created?

There is no one way to design an operating system because it is a highly creative task. There are, however, general software principles that apply to all operating systems. The distinction between mechanism and policy is that mechanism demonstrates how to do something while policy demonstrates what to do.

What does increasing the number of cores do?

If we increase the number of cores in a processor, system performance will improve. Multiple cores enable PCs to run multiple processes at once with greater ease, improving performance when multitasking or under the demands of powerful apps and programs.

Check out Input-Output Processor here.

Conclusion

In this article, we have extensively discussed the properties of Operating systems. We have seen different properties and their advantages and disadvantages. 

Recommended Readings: 


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