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Table of contents
1.
Introduction 
2.
Hyperparameter
3.
Working of hyperparameters
3.1.
Hyperparameter tuning optimizes
3.2.
Getting your metrics through AI platform training
3.3.
Hyperparameter value flow 
4.
Selecting hyperparameters to tune
4.1.
Hyperparameter types
5.
Search algorithms
6.
Frequently Asked Questions
6.1.
Why is hyperparameter tuning important?
6.2.
What is Keras?
6.3.
What is a runtime error?
7.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Overview of hyperparameter tuning in GCP

Author Muskan Sharma
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Introduction 

We all have worked on training models, and in this, we all came across the concept of hyperparameter. So, to evaluate multiple hyperparameter configurations during model training, hyperparameter tweaking uses the computing capabilities of Google Cloud. To increase the predicted accuracy of your model, it can provide you with optimized values for hyperparameters.

Let's Dive into the topic to learn more.

Hyperparameter

Hyperparameters are variables whose values influence the learning process and define the model parameter values that a learning algorithm ultimately learns.

Your training program handles three types of data while it develops your model, which are discussed below:

  • Your input data, also known as training data, is a group of distinct records (instances) containing the features necessary to solve your machine learning problem. Using this information, you may train your model to make precise predictions about future occurrences of the same data. However, the values present in your input data never directly enter your model.
     
  • The variables your chosen machine learning technique employs to adapt to your data are your model's parameters. For instance, a deep neural network (DNN) is made of processing nodes (neurons), each of which acts on the data as it passes through the network. Each node in your DNN has a weight value during training that indicates to your model how much impact it will have on the prediction outcome. These weights are an illustration of a parameter in your model. The parameters of your model are, in many respects, what makes it unique from other models of the same sort applied to the same data set.

Tuning of hyperparameters goes through these training processes: By running data through the model's operations, comparing the resulting prediction with the actual value for each data instance, evaluating the accuracy, and adjusting until you discover the optimal values.

  • The parameters that control the training itself are your hyperparameters. For instance, choosing how many hidden layers of nodes to employ between the input layer and the output layer and how many nodes each layer needs is an element of configuring a deep neural network. These variables don't have any direct connections to the practice data. They are settings variables. While hyperparameters are often stable throughout a job, parameters change throughout a training job.
  • Tuning hyperparameters involves running your entire training job, assessing the overall accuracy, and making adjustments.
  • Determining the optimal hyperparameter settings is simplified and made less difficult by hyperparameter tuning.
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Working of hyperparameters

A single training task is used to execute several trials for hyperparameter tuning. Each trial represents the full execution of your training application with the values of the selected hyperparameters set within the boundaries you define. The AI Platform Training training service records each trial's findings, which then makes adjustments for the following trials. You can obtain a summary of all the trials and the most efficient arrangement of values per the criteria you define once the work is complete.

The AI Platform Training training service and your training application must explicitly communicate in order to do hyperparameter tuning. All the data your model requires is defined in your training application. You must specify the hyperparameters (variables) you wish to modify and the goal value for each hyperparameter.

Hyperparameter tuning optimizes

A single target variable, known as the hyperparameter metric, is optimized through hyperparameter tuning. A popular metric is the model's correctness, which is determined through an assessment pass. You can specify whether you wish to tweak your model to maximize or minimize the measure, which must be a numeric value.

The metric's default name is raining/hptuning/metrict. The hyperparameterMetricTag value in the HyperparameterSpec object in your task request must be set to match your selected name if you use a custom name, which is the sole functional difference.

Getting your metrics through AI platform training

The AI Platform Training service tracks TensorFlow summary events produced by your training application for TensorFlow models and extracts the statistics. To report your training measure to AI Platform Training, you must use the cloudml-hypertune Python module if the model you're working on was created using a different framework or a custom container.

Hyperparameter value flow 

You can specify your hyperparameters in your training application as you desire without having to worry about tweaking them. For instance, you may feed the hyperparameters to your application in a configuration file or send them as command-line arguments to the main application module.

To set the values of the hyperparameters you're using for tuning, you must follow the approach outlined below:

  • Specify a command-line option in your main training module for each tuned hyperparameter.
     
  • To set the matching hyperparameter in the TensorFlow code for your application, use the value supplied in those arguments.

Selecting hyperparameters to tune

You may know how the machine learning approach's hyperparameters behave if you've used it before.

You may know how the machine learning approach's hyperparameters behave if you've used it before. The time and expense of training your model can be reduced by carefully choosing hyperparameters to tweak.

Hyperparameter types

Each hyperparameter's type and associated value ranges are specified in the ParameterSpec object, as shown in the following table:

Hyperparameters Type

Hyperparameter Scaling You can designate the scaling applied to a hyperparameter. In the case of DOUBLE and INTEGER types, scaling is advised. The scaling options include:

  • UNIT_LINEAR_SCALE
  • UNIT_LOG_SCALE
  • UNIT_REVERSE_LOG_SCALE

Search algorithms

A search algorithm can be specified in the HyperparameterSpec object. If you don't provide an algorithm, your task uses the AI Platform Training algorithm by default, which directs the parameter search to more efficiently locate the best answer.

ALGORITHM_UNSPECIFIED: involves the same outcomes when a search algorithm is not specified. Using a default methodology, AI Platform Training finds the most efficient method for your particular hyperparameters by applying Bayesian optimization to the space of potential values for each one.

GRID_SEARCH: a straightforward grid search inside the functional area. This option is quite helpful if you want to provide several trials that are greater than the number of possible points. In some situations, the AI Platform Training default method may produce redundant suggestions if you do not specify a grid search. To use grid search, all parameters must be of type INTEGERCATEGORICAL, or DISCRETE.

RANDOM_SEARCH: A simple random search inside the possible space.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is hyperparameter tuning important?

A machine learning model's behavior can largely be controlled via hyperparameter adjustment.

What is Keras?

The open-source software package known as Keras provides a Python interface for artificial neural networks. Keras provide the TensorFlow library interface.

What is a runtime error?

When a program is syntactically sound but has a bug only discovered during program execution, it is said to have a runtime error.

Conclusion

This blog has extensively discussed an overview of hyperparameter tuning in GCP, working of hyperparameters, sample code. We hope this blog has helped you learn about the overview of hyperparameter tuning in GCP. If you want to learn more, check out the excellent content on the Coding Ninjas Website: manage to serve accounts in GCP

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