Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com. Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com
Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
What is RAID in DBMS
3.
Levels of RAID in DBMS
3.1.
RAID 0
3.1.1.
Advantages of Raid 0
3.1.2.
Disadvantage of Raid 0
3.2.
RAID 1
3.2.1.
Advantages of RAID 1
3.2.2.
Disadvantages of RAID 1
3.3.
RAID 2
3.3.1.
Advantages of RAID 2
3.3.2.
Disadvantages of RAID 2
3.4.
RAID 3
3.4.1.
Advantages of RAID 3
3.4.2.
Disadvantages of RAID 3
3.5.
RAID 4
3.6.
RAID 5
3.6.1.
Advantages of RAID 5
3.6.2.
Disadvantages of RAID 5
3.7.
RAID 6
3.7.1.
Advantage of RAID 6
3.7.2.
Disadvantage of RAID 6
4.
Characteristic of RAID
5.
Advantages of RAID
6.
Disadvantages of RAID
7.
Frequently Asked Questions
7.1.
Which level of RAID is used for database systems?
7.2.
What is the full form of RAID?
7.3.
Which RAID has got the most speed?
7.4.
What are the 7 RAID levels?
7.5.
What is RAID 6 in DBMS?
7.6.
Why is RAID used?
8.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Apr 27, 2024
Easy

RAID in DBMS

Author Ankit Kumar
3 upvotes
Master Python: Predicting weather forecasts
Speaker
Ashwin Goyal
Product Manager @

Introduction

IBM was the first to patent RAID in 1978. RAID levels 1 through 5 were established in 1987 by a team of electrical engineers and computer scientists from the University of Berkeley in California. In 1988, the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Management released their work. It was dubbed a "case of redundant affordable disc arrays'' (RAID).

RAID in DBMS

The goal was to merge numerous low-cost devices into an array with increased storage, reliability, and processing speed. Later, RAID marketers dropped the phrase "inexpensive" and replaced it with "Independent" so that buyers wouldn't associate it with a low price.

What is RAID in DBMS

RAID is primarily used for data protection, allowing two data copies to be maintained, one on each disc. It's frequently seen in high-end servers and a few tiny workstations. A physical disc is in a RAID array when RAID duplicates data. The OS treats the RAID array as a single disc rather than several discs. Each disc's RAID goal is to improve input/output (I/O) operations and increase data dependability. RAID levels can be configured separately or in nonstandard ways, including nested levels comprising two or more basic RAID levels.

RAID is a way of storing duplicate data on two or more hard drives in a redundant array of independent disks (RAID). It's used for data backup, fault tolerance, increasing throughput, storing more data, and improving performance.

A logical unit is created by merging two or more hard discs and a RAID controller. RAID is seen by the Operating System as a single logical hard disc called a RAID array. There are many levels of RAID, each of which distributes data across the hard drives and has its own set of characteristics and functions. Initially, there were just five levels, but RAID has grown to include a variety of nonstandard and nested levels.

Must Recommended, Schema in DBMS, Multiple Granularity in DBMS

Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job
Bootcamp

Levels of RAID in DBMS

RAID 0

Level-0 RAID is not redundant. Performance is excellent since no redundant data is saved, but data loss occurs if any disc in the array fails. A single record is split into 512-byte strips and stored over many drives. Striping allows the document to be accessible fast by reading all disks simultaneously.

This level does not provide fault tolerance, but it helps improve the system's overall performance.

Advantages of Raid 0

  • Because many data requests are unlikely to be on the same disc at this level, throughput is boosted.
  • This level makes the most of the available disc space and gives excellent performance.
  • It needs a minimum of two drives.

Disadvantage of Raid 0

  • It lacks an error detection mechanism.
  • As it is not fault-tolerant, RAID 0 is not a true RAID.
  • At this level, a failure of either disc results in the loss of all data in the array.
     

RAID 1

This level is referred to as data mirroring since it transfers data from drive 1 to drive 2. In case of a failure, it provides 100 percent redundancy.

Disk0Disk1Disk2Disk3
AABB
CCDD
EEFF
GGHH

The data is only stored in half of the drive's capacity. The remaining half of the disc is merely a mirror of the previously recorded data.

Advantages of RAID 1

  • RAID 1's key benefit is fault tolerance. If one disc dies at this level, the other takes over automatically.
  • The array will continue to work at this level even if one disk fails.

Disadvantages of RAID 1

  • Because mirroring requires one additional disc for each drive at this level, the cost is higher.
     

RAID 2

Bit-level striping with Hamming code parity is used in RAID 2. Each data bit of a word is recorded on a separate disc at this level, while the ECC code of data words is saved on a different set of disks.

This level is not economically employed due to its high cost and complicated construction. RAID 3 can provide the same performance at a reduced price.

Advantages of RAID 2

  • This level stores parity on a single dedicated disc.
  • For error detection, it employs the hamming code.

Disadvantages of RAID 2

  • Error detection necessitates the use of a second drive.
     

RAID 3

RAID 3 uses dedicated parity and byte-level striping. The parity information for each disc segment is saved and written to a specialized parity drive at this level.

The parity drive is accessible in a drive failure, and data is recreated from the surviving devices. The lost data can be restored on the replacement drive once the faulty drive has been replaced.

Data can be sent in bulk at this level. As a result, data transfer at high speeds is conceivable.

Disk0Disk1Disk2Disk3
ABCP(A, B, C)
DEFP(D, E, F)
GHIP(G, H, I)
HKLP(J, K, L)

Advantages of RAID 3

  • Data is regenerated using parity drive at this level.
  • It has a lot of data transmission rates.
  • Data is accessible in parallel at this level.

Disadvantages of RAID 3

  • For parity, an extra drive was necessary.
  • When working with tiny files, it has a sluggish performance.
     

RAID 4

Block-level striping plus a parity disc makes up RAID 4. The RAID 4 uses a parity-based method rather than duplicating data.

Due to the way parity works, this level allows for the recovery of just one disc failure. If more than one disc dies at this level, there is no way to recover the data.

RAID levels 3 and 4 require at least three drives to be implemented.

Disk0Disk1Disk2Disk3
ABCP(0)
DEFP(1)
GHIP(2)
HKLP(3)

One disc is dedicated to parity in this illustration.

An XOR function can be used to calculate parity at this level. If the data bits are 0,0,0,1 and the parity bits are XOR(0, 1, 0, 0)=1 The parity bit is XOR(0,0,1,1)=0 if the parity bits are 0,0,1,1. That is, parity 0 corresponds to an even number of one, while parity 1 corresponds to an odd number of one.

C1C2C3C4Parity
01001
00110

RAID 5

RAID 5 is a slightly modified version of RAID 4. The main difference is that with RAID 5, the parity is distributed across the discs in a rotating fashion.

It comprises DISTRIBUTED parity striping at the block level.

This level, like RAID 4, provides for the recovery of only one disc failure. There is no method to restore data if more than one disc crashes.

Disk0Disk1Disk2Disk3Disk4
0123P0
567P14
1011P289
15P3121314
P416171819

Advantages of RAID 5

  • This level is both cost-effective and high-performing.
  • Parity is dispersed among the discs in an array at this level.
  • Its purpose is to improve random writing performance.

Disadvantages of RAID 5

  • Disk failure recovery is slower at this level since parity must be determined from all accessible drives.
  • This level will not survive if both drives fail at the same time.
     

RAID 6

RAID 5 is extended to this level. Block-level striping with two parity bits is included.

You can withstand two simultaneous disc failures in RAID 6. Assume you're working with RAID 5 and RAID 1. When one of your discs breaks, you must replace it because if another disc fails simultaneously, you will be unable to retrieve any of your data. RAID 6 comes into play in this instance, allowing you to survive two simultaneous disc failures before running out of alternatives.

Disk1Disk2Disk3Disk4
A0B0Q0P0
A1Q1P1D1
Q2HID2
P3B3C3Q3

Advantage of RAID 6

  • RAID 0 is used to remove data, while RAID 1 is used to replicate it at this level. Before mirroring, this level requires stripping.
  • The number of drives necessary at this level should be a multiple of two.

Disadvantage of RAID 6

  • It is impossible to use all of the disc capacity because half of it is needed for mirroring.
  • It has a finite amount of scalability.

Characteristic of RAID

  • It is made up of several virtual disc drives.
  • The operating system treats these different drives as a single logical disc with this technique.
  • Data is spread among the array's physical discs with this technique.
  • Parity information is stored on redundancy disc capacity.
  • In a disc failure, the parity information can aid in data recovery.

Advantages of RAID

  • Data Redundancy: RAID provides redundancy by distributing data across multiple disks, ensuring data integrity and protection against disk failures.
  • Improved Performance: Certain RAID configurations, such as RAID 0 and RAID 5, can enhance read and write performance by striping data across multiple disks.
  • Increased Storage Capacity: RAID allows for the aggregation of storage capacity from multiple disks into a single logical volume, maximizing storage efficiency.
  • Fault Tolerance: RAID configurations with redundancy, such as RAID 1 and RAID 5, can continue to operate even if one or more disks fail, minimizing downtime and data loss.
  • Scalability: RAID systems can be easily expanded by adding additional disks or upgrading existing disks, providing scalability to accommodate growing storage needs.

Disadvantages of RAID

  • Complexity: Configuring and managing RAID arrays can be complex, requiring expertise and careful consideration of factors such as RAID levels, disk capacities, and fault tolerance.
  • Cost: Implementing RAID involves additional hardware costs for purchasing multiple disks and RAID controllers, as well as ongoing maintenance expenses.
  • Performance Impact: While certain RAID configurations can improve performance, others may introduce overhead or latency, depending on factors such as parity calculations and disk synchronization.
  • Data Recovery Challenges: In the event of a RAID failure, data recovery can be challenging and may require specialized tools or services, especially for complex RAID configurations or multiple disk failures.
  • Limited Redundancy: Some RAID levels, such as RAID 0, offer no redundancy, making data vulnerable to loss in case of disk failure. It's essential to choose the appropriate RAID level based on redundancy requirements and performance considerations.

Frequently Asked Questions

Which level of RAID is used for database systems?

Choose RAID 5 for improved performance if your RAID 1 is at 100% utilization. Striping is critical for data files with random access and read-intensive data volumes. As a result, RAID 5 or 10 is recommended. RAID 0, 1, or 5 is suggested for tempdb files with good read/write performance.

What is the full form of RAID?

Redundant Array of Independent Disks

Which RAID has got the most speed?

Because read and write requests are evenly dispersed across all of the discs in the array, RAID0 gives the largest speed increase, especially for write speed.

What are the 7 RAID levels?

The seven RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) levels are: RAID 0, RAID 1, RAID 2, RAID 3, RAID 4, RAID 5, and RAID 6. Each level offers different configurations of data striping, mirroring, and parity for redundancy and performance.

What is RAID 6 in DBMS?

RAID 6 is a RAID level that provides enhanced fault tolerance compared to RAID 5 by using dual parity schemes. It can withstand the failure of up to two disks simultaneously without data loss, making it suitable for applications requiring high data reliability.

Why is RAID used?

RAID is used to improve data reliability, availability, and performance in storage systems. It achieves this by combining multiple physical disks into a single logical unit, offering redundancy through data mirroring, striping, and parity techniques, thus reducing the risk of data loss due to disk failures.

Conclusion

In the article, we discussed RAID in DBMS. RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) plays a crucial role in enhancing data reliability, availability, and performance in database management systems (DBMS). By leveraging various RAID levels, DBMS can achieve fault tolerance, data redundancy, and improved storage efficiency. 

Recommended Reading:

Process Control Block in OS

Check out this problem - Duplicate Subtree In Binary Tree
Also read -  Aggregation in DBMS

You just covered the essential part of DBMS. Do not stop here and explore Coding Ninjas Studio and cover some advanced questions on Top-100-SQL-problems.

Previous article
Advantages and Disadvantages of Apache Spark
Next article
Creating Manageable Data Structures
Live masterclass