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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
What is Scala?
3.
Scala Example
3.1.
Scala
4.
Scala Uses
5.
Scala Index
6.
Scala comments
7.
Identifiers in Scala
8.
Keywords in Scala
8.1.
Variables in Scala
9.
Control Statements in Scala
9.1.
Flow Control Statements
9.2.
Scala
9.3.
Scala
9.4.
Scala
9.5.
Scala
9.6.
Loop Control Statements
9.7.
Scala
9.8.
Scala
9.9.
Scala
10.
Frequently Asked Questions
10.1.
What is Scala language used for?
10.2.
Which is better Python or Scala?
10.3.
Is Scala better than Java?
10.4.
Is Scala frontend or backend?
10.5.
In Scala, what is ‘call-by-name’?
10.6.
Does Scala use pass by value or pass by reference?
11.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
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Scala Programming Language

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Introduction

When we step into the programming world, the most important and challenging question we face is “Which programming language to choose?”. Until today, many programming paradigms have been introduced, Imperative, Logical, Functional, Object Oriented; it’s confusing to choose the suitable programming language to use when we have these many options.

Scala Programming Language

In this article, we are going to discuss Scala Programming Language. We will, in turn, start this article with a discussion of the basics of scala programming language. Afterward, we will discuss an essential part of the Scala programming language, including comments, identifiers, keywords, data types, variables, and control flow statements in scala. So let’s get started!

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What is Scala?

Scala is a contemporary multi-paradigm programming language intended to express common programming patterns in a concise, elegant, and type-safe manner.

Scala is an object-oriented programming language that supports the functional programming approach. Scala programs can be converted to bytecodes and executed on the JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Javascript runtimes are also available. Scala is heavily influenced by Java and other programming languages such as Lisp, Haskell, Pizza, and others.

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Scala Example

Scala is very similar to Java. We use the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) to execute code in both languages. If you have a good understanding of the Java language, learning Scala should be a breeze. However, prior knowledge of Java is not required for learning the Scala programming language.

 

Hello, World in Scala:

  • Scala

Scala

object HelloScala {
   def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
       println("Hello, World!")
   }
}

Output:

Output Image

Scala Uses

Scala is used at various places:

  • It is a versatile programming language that can be used for a wide range of applications. It is suitable for building web applications, desktop applications, backend services, data analysis, and more
     
  • It has built-in support for concurrent and parallel programming. It provides features like actors and the Akka framework, making it well-suited for developing highly concurrent and scalable systems
     
  • It is a functional programming language that supports functional programming paradigms. It includes features like higher-order functions, immutability, and pattern matching, making it a powerful choice for functional programming enthusiasts
     
  • It is a popular language for big data processing frameworks like Apache Spark. Its functional programming capabilities and concise syntax make it an excellent choice for data manipulation and analysis
     
  • Its scalability is not only related to concurrency but also to its ability to scale with project complexity. It is used in both small-scale applications and large-scale systems

Scala Index

The Scala Index typically refers to an index or position within a collection or sequence in Scala, such as an array, list, or string. Scala uses a zero-based indexing system, which means that the first element in a collection is at index 0, the second element is at index 1, and so on.

For example, if you have an array in Scala:

val numbers = Array(10, 20, 30, 40, 50)

 

To access the element "30" in this array, you would refer to it by its index, which is 2:

val element = numbers(2) // element is now 30

Scala comments

Scala programming language allows for single and multi-line comments. Multiple lines can be nested.

def main(args: Array[String]) {
 
  //println(f"my name is $name%s")
  val name:String="Rhaul roy"
   
  /*
  println(f"my name is $name%s")
  println(f"my name is $name%s")
  */ 
}

Identifiers in Scala

Identifiers are simply names assigned to objects, classes, variables, and methods. The important thing to remember is that a keyword cannot be used as an identifier.

Scala has four different types of identifiers.

  1. Alphanumeric Identifiers: These identifiers begin with a letter or underscore and are followed by letters, digits, or underscores.
  2. Operators IdentifiersThese operator identifiers comprise one or more operator characters.
  3. Mixed IdentifiersIt comprises an alphanumeric identifier, an underscore, and an operator identifier.
  4. Literal identifiers: An arbitrary string enclosed in backticks ('..... ') is a literal identifier.

Keywords in Scala

In Scala, keywords are simply reserved words. The reserved words in Scala are listed in the table below.

keywords

Variables in Scala

Variables are memory locations reserved for storing values, which will be referred to later in the program.

There are two kinds of variables in Scala.

  1. Immutable
  2. Mutable

 

  1. Immutable variables: Variables that cannot be changed are known as immutable variables. 
    The val keyword is used to declare it.
    Example: val name:String=”Alankrit”
     
  2. Mutable variables: Variables that can be changed are known as mutable variables. It is declared with the var keyword.
    Example: val name:String=”Alankrit”
     

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Control Statements in Scala

There are two types of control statements in the Scala programming language. The first is flow control, and the other is loop control.

Flow Control Statements

Flow control statements are used to make a decision based on the circumstances. A piece of code is executed or not executed based on a specified condition in this case. This governs the program's execution flow.

The following are Scala flow control statements:

  • if
  • if-else
  • Nested if-else
  • if-else if ladder

 

If statement: The most straightforward decision-making statement is the if statement. It only has an "if block" that is executed. If both the specified and specified conditions are false, the "If block" is skipped.

  • Scala

Scala

object Main {
 def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
   val age:Int=20
   if(age>18)
     {
       print("true")
     }
 }
}

Output:

 

If else statement:  It has two sections: "if block" and "else block." If the specified condition is true, the "if block" is executed; otherwise, the "else block" is executed.

  • Scala

Scala

object Main {
 def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
   val age:Int=20
   if(age>18)
     {
       print("true")
     }else
     print("false")
 }
}

Output:

 

Nested if-else: Scala allows us to define if-else statements within an if or else statement.

  • Scala

Scala

object Main {
 def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
   val age:Int=20;
   if(age>18)
     {
       if(age==18)
         {
           print("Age is 18")
         }
         else {
           print("Not equal to 18");
    }
     }else {
    print("Age is not greater than 18")

   }
   
 }
}

Output:

 

If-else if ladder - When you have multiple conditions, this is useful. And only one of these conditions can be true at any given time. The if statements are executed from the top to down in this case. The statement associated with it is executed as soon as one of the conditions is true. And the rest of the ladder is skipped. If none are true, then the "else block" is executed.

  • Scala

Scala

object Main {
 def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
   val age:Int=20;

    if(age==18)
     {
      print("age is 18")
     }else if(age==19) {
     print("not equal to 18")
     }
    else
     print("not matched ")
 }
}

Output:

Loop Control Statements

Loops are an essential component of any programming language. This allows us to execute a block of code multiple times.

The following are Scala loop control statements:

  • While
  • Do while
  • For

 

While statement: This statement or group of statements is executed while a given condition is true. Before executing any loop body statement, the condition is tested.

  • Scala

Scala

object Main {
 def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {

   var index: Int = 0
     while(index<10)
     {
       print(index);
       index=index+1
     }

 }
}

Output:


 

Do While - It is similar to the while loop in that it executes the body once and then tests the condition.

  • Scala

Scala

object Main {
 def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {

    var index: Int = 0
     do
     {
       print(index);
       index=index+1
     }while(index<10)

 }
}

Output:

 

For Loop: It is frequently used with collection objects. It loops through a section of code several times.

  • Scala

Scala

object Main {
 def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {

   // for with range
   for( a <- 1 to 20){
     println( "Value : " + a );
   }

   // print all elements of a list
   val list1:List[String]=List("Soccer","Cricket")
   for(ele <- list1){
     println( "ele : " + ele );
   }
 }
}

Output:

Frequently Asked Questions

What is Scala language used for?

Scala is used for general-purpose programming, web development, backend services, data analysis, and concurrent programming.

Which is better Python or Scala?

Python and Scala have different strengths; Python is known for simplicity, while Scala offers strong functional and concurrency support.

Is Scala better than Java?

Scala offers distinct advantages over Java, including concise syntax and functional programming features.

Is Scala frontend or backend?

Scala is primarily a backend language but can also be used for front-end development. JavaScript is more common for front-end work.

In Scala, what is ‘call-by-name’?

When arguments pass through a call-by-value function in Scala, the value of the passed-in expression or arguments is computed once before calling the function. A call-by-name function in Scala, on the other hand, calls the expression and recomputes the value of the passed-in expression every time it is accessed within the function.

Does Scala use pass by value or pass by reference?

Both Java and Scala use call-by-value exclusively, with the difference that the value is either a primitive or a pointer to an object. If your object has mutable fields, there isn't much of a difference between this and calling by reference.

Conclusion

In this article, we have extensively discussed the Scala programming language, the most basic part of the Scala programming language, including comments, identifiers, keywords, data types, variables, and control flow statements in scala.

If you think this blog has helped you enhance your knowledge about Scala programming language, and if you would like to learn more, check out our articles javajava archivesjava vs python and c++, and java development kit. You can also refer to our guided path on the basics of java and many more on our Website.

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