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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
SDLC Interview Questions for Freshers
2.1.
1. What is SDLC?
2.2.
2. What is the importance of SDLC?
2.3.
3. What are the Sdlc Models?
2.4.
4. What Are the Different SDLC Phases?
2.5.
5. What is a Feasibility Study?
2.6.
6. What are levels of testing?
2.7.
7. What is SRS (Software Requirement Specification)?
2.8.
8. Which of the SDLC model is the best?
2.9.
9. What is the baseline?
2.10.
10. What Is the Waterfall Model?
2.11.
11. What Are the Benefits of the Waterfall Model?
2.12.
12. What is an Incremental Model?
2.13.
13. What is a Prototype Model?
2.14.
14. What are the various kinds of prototype models?
2.15.
15. What are the benefits of employing the Prototype model?
2.16.
16. What are the drawbacks of the Prototype Model?
2.17.
17. What Does Iterative Model Mean?
3.
SDLC Interview Questions for Experienced
3.1.
18. What are the disadvantages of the Waterfall Model?
3.2.
19. What Is the Spiral Model?
3.3.
20. What are the benefits of the spiral model?
3.4.
21. What Does Capability Maturity Model Mean?
3.5.
22. What are the various levels of maturity in CMM?
3.6.
23. What are LLD and HLD?
3.7.
24. What exactly does a project's "scope" imply?
3.8.
25. What are the stages of the SDLC software maintenance phase?
3.9.
26. Explain the RAD model in the context of software development.
3.10.
27. Briefly describe the agile model.
3.11.
28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the agile model?
3.12.
29. Briefly describe the V-model.
3.13.
30. What are some of the advantages of using the V-model?
3.14.
31. What are the drawbacks of the V Model?
3.15.
32. What is a Big Bang model?
3.16.
33. What are the benefits of using the SDLC model?
3.17.
34. What are the drawbacks of using the SDLC model?
4.
Frequently Asked Questions
4.1.
What exactly does STLC stand for?
4.2.
What is SDLC process in an interview?
4.3.
What are the 5 stages of SDLC?
4.4.
What are the 7 phases of SDLC?
4.5.
What are the 5 stages SDLC?
5.
Conclusion
Last Updated: May 8, 2024
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SDLC Interview Questions

Author Prerna Tiwari
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Ashwin Goyal
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18 Jun, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

Introduction

SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. SDLC is a series of steps or phases that serve as a model for developing and managing an application or piece of software.

In other words, it is a project management conceptual model that describes the stages of a system development project, from the initial feasibility study to the maintenance of the completed application.

If you are preparing for an SDLC interview and want a quick guide before your interview, you have come to the right place. In this article, we will discuss SDLC interview questions.

SDLC Interview Questions

 

SDLC Interview Questions for Freshers

1. What is SDLC?

SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle. It is a systematic process which is commonly used by software development teams to design, develop and test software. It consists of a series of phases that guides the development process.

2. What is the importance of SDLC?

SDLC provides a structured approach for developing software applications, which ensures that the entire process follows a systematic and organized path. It helps in reducing chaos and mismanagement by breaking down the development cycle into smaller phases.

3. What are the Sdlc Models?

 There are several models used in SDLC. Some of them are:-

  • Waterfall model
  • V model
  • Incremental model
  • Rapid Application Development(RAD) model
  •  Agile model
  • Iterative model
  • Spiral model
  • Big-bang Model
  • Prototype Model
  • Capability Maturity Model
     

4. What Are the Different SDLC Phases?

SDLC approach is used to develop software systematically. The different phases involved are as follows:-

  • Requirement gathering and analysis
  • System Design
  • Implementation or coding
  • Testing
  • Deployment
  • Maintenance


1. Requirement Gathering Phase: The project requirements are examined in input data and desired output, processing required to convert input into output, cost-benefit analysis, and project schedule. It also includes requirements gathering, analysis, validation, and specification.

2. System Design Phase: The SRS document's requirements are translated into a logical structure that can be implemented in a programming language. System design aids in the specification of hardware, system requirements, and the definition of overall system architecture. The design phase produces a design document, which serves as an input for all subsequent SDLC phases.

3. Coding Phase: The design specified in the document is translated into programming language code that can be executed. The source code for the software that serves as input to the testing and maintenance phases is the output of the coding phase. This is the most time-consuming phase of the software development life cycle.

4. Testing Phase: The testing phase of the software development lifecycle (SDLC)  is when you focus on research and discovery. During the testing phase, developers determine whether their code and programming meet client needs.

5. Maintenance Phase: The Maintenance phase includes the implementation of changes that software may go through over time and the implementation of new requirements after the software has been deployed at the customer site. The maintenance phase also includes dealing with any residual errors that may remain in the software after testing.

5. What is a Feasibility Study?

It is a metric used to determine how practical and beneficial software project development will be for a company. The software analyst investigates the project's economic, technical, and operational feasibility.

6. What are levels of testing?

Testing is a crucial part of SDLC, it makes sure the application being developed is reliable. Testing is usually done at multiple levels or stages during SDLC. Some common levels of testing are:-

  • Unit Testing
     
  • Integration Testing
     
  • System Testing
     
  • Acceptance Testing
     
  • Regression Testing
     
  • Security Testing.

7. What is SRS (Software Requirement Specification)?

The Software Requirement Specification (SRS) is a document created during the requirement gathering process. It is a process of refining and documenting requirements.

The SRS is a formal document that serves as a written contract between the customer and the development team. SRS includes the project's functional, performance, software, hardware, and network requirements.

8. Which of the SDLC model is the best?

There is no universally best SDLC model as the choice depends on various factors such as project requirements, team capabilities, project timeline, etc. Certain organizations may have preferences depending on the project context. Some commonly used SDLC models are:-

  • Waterfall Model: It is suitable for projects with clear and stable requirements, where changes in the plans will not occur. The model provides a structured approach but it lacks flexibility.
     
  • Agile Model: This iterative SDLC model is suitable for projects where the requirements may change as the project progresses, it promotes customer feedback and collaboration.
     
  • Spiral Model: This model combines waterfall and iterative approaches. It is suitable for large and complicated projects right management is crucial.
     
  • V-Model: This model is a variation of the waterfall model. It emphasises on testing and quality assurance. It is suitable for projects that are more focused on testing.

9. What is the baseline?

The baseline is a virtual line that represents the end of each phase. When all activities associated with a specific phase have been completed, a baseline will begin working on the next phase.

10. What Is the Waterfall Model?

The Waterfall model is a model which has a sequential design process used in software development processes.

In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed completely before moving on to the next. This model is generally used for small projects with no uncertain requirements. It is extremely simple to grasp and apply.

11. What Are the Benefits of the Waterfall Model?

  1. This model is straightforward to grasp and apply and implement.
  2. Because of the model's rigidity – each phase has specific deliverables and a review process - it is simple to manage.
  3. Phases are completed one at a time in this model. The phases do not mix.
  4. This model works well for smaller projects with well-defined requirements.

12. What is an Incremental Model?

The incremental model is a natural extension of the waterfall model. Multiple development cycles occur here, resulting in a "multi-waterfall" life cycle. Cycles are divided into smaller, more manageable iterations. Each iteration goes through the requirements, design, implementation, and testing phases.

13. What is a Prototype Model?

A prototype is a model or program that is an early approximation of the final product or software system that is not based on strict planning. A prototype is used to test the process.

A prototype model focuses on incrementally developing software and testing it in a real-time environment with customers in mind.

14. What are the various kinds of prototype models?

Prototype models are as follows-

  • The Patch-Up Prototype
  • First-of-a-Series Prototype
  • Nonoperational Prototype
  • Selected Features Prototype
     

15. What are the benefits of employing the Prototype model?

  • Errors are detectable earlier.
  • Quick user feedback is available to help lead to a better solution.
     

16. What are the drawbacks of the Prototype Model?

  •  It is a costly approach and a time-consuming process when compared to sequential models such as the Waterfall model.
  • The customer may accept the prototype as the working version.
  • The developer may also make implementation compromises.
  • Once requirements are finalized, it is difficult to implement changes and add new requirements.
     

17. What Does Iterative Model Mean?

An iterative life cycle model does not begin with a complete set of requirements. Instead, development begins with specifying and implementing only a portion of the software, which can be reviewed to identify additional requirements. This process is repeated for each model cycle, resulting in a new version of the software.

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SDLC Interview Questions for Experienced

18. What are the disadvantages of the Waterfall Model?

  • The delivery of software late in the project delays the discovery of serious errors.
  • It is difficult to incorporate risk management.
  • Changing documents "swimming upstream" is difficult and expensive.
  • Significant administrative overhead, which can be expensive for small teams and projects.
  • If the client wishes to change the requirement, it will not be implemented during the current development process.
  • Poor model for long-term projects.

 

19. What Is the Spiral Model?

The spiral model, like the incremental model, includes risk analysis. Planning, Risk Analysis, Engineering, and Evaluation are the four phases of the spiral model. Iterations take a software project through these phases repeatedly (called Spirals in this model). Starting with the planning phase, the baseline spiral gathers requirements and assesses risk. Each spiral that follows builds on the previous one. During the planning phase, requirements are gathered.

This development model combines elements of the prototyping and waterfall models. The spiral model is designed for large, costly, and complex projects.

 

20. What are the benefits of the spiral model?

  1. A significant amount of risk can be assessed.
  2. It works well for time sensitive projects
  3. It has strict approval and documentation controls in place.

 

21. What Does Capability Maturity Model Mean?

The Capability Maturity Model is a standard for assessing the maturity of a company's software process. It is a methodology for developing and refining its software development process. CMM can evaluate an organization against a five-level scale of process maturity based on specific Key Process Areas (KPA). It describes the company's maturity concerning the project and the clients. Each level ranks the organization based on its process standardization in the evaluated subject area.

 

22. What are the various levels of maturity in CMM?

CMM defines five levels of maturity, each representing a different stage of process improvement and organizational capability. Here are the various levels of maturity in CMM:

  1. Level 1 - Initial: Processes are chaotic and unstructured, relying on individual heroics rather than defined methods. There's little predictability or control over project outcomes
     
  2. Level 2 - Repeatable: Basic processes are established, though they may vary between projects. There's a growing awareness of the need for consistency and some level of standardization
     
  3. Level 3 - Defined: Processes are well-documented and consistently applied across projects. Quality assurance practices are integrated, and organizations actively seek opportunities for improvement
     
  4. Level 4 - Managed: Quantitative data is used to manage and control processes. Predictable outcomes are achieved through data-driven decision-making and continuous improvement efforts
     
  5. Level 5 - Optimizing: Organizations have a culture of continuous improvement and innovation. They actively seek and incorporate emerging best practices to exceed industry standards and expectations


23. What are LLD and HLD?

The HLD (High-Level Design) and LLD (Low-Level design) analyze and understand the project in a high-level and low-level overview to various customers and team members. The LLD is a detailed design implementation that will aid Developers in the development process. In contrast, the High-Level Design will be provided by Architects to begin the development process. This will make it easier to know or understand the project at a glance.

 

24. What exactly does a project's "scope" imply?

The project scope includes the project's goals, objectives, and expected outcomes. The definition of software scope involves defining boundaries that include all processes used to develop and deliver the product. 'Scope' aids in determining what the system will and will not do.

 

25. What are the stages of the SDLC software maintenance phase?

There are various types of software maintenance available, such as:

  • Adaptive: This type deals with changes in hardware and software environments in which the software is deployed.
  • Preventive: Taking significant steps to avoid future risks.
  • Corrective: Resolving customer-reported bugs.
  • Perfective: adding new features based on customer feedback.

 

26. Explain the RAD model in the context of software development.

Rapid Application Development is abbreviated as RAD. It provides a method for quickly developing high-quality software products by following these steps:

  • Early prototyping, software component reuse
  • Following a strict schedule
  • Having effective team communication.

 

27. Briefly describe the agile model.

The agile model is very effective because it takes a realistic and quick approach to deliver the software with some functional requirements in 15 to 20 days. The model is iterative and incremental. Each sprint includes requirement, design, development, and testing stages. Testers and developers collaborate as a cross-functional team during this process. 

 

28. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the agile model?

The advantage is that this model is constantly changing based on customer feedback.

But at the same time, it lacks empathy for the required design and documentation.

Maintaining a long cross-functional team is also difficult.

29. Briefly describe the V-model.

The V-model stands for software verification and validation. It is a more sophisticated version of the waterfall model. In this model, testers and developers collaborate at the same time. This model is in charge of establishing a link between each SDLC phase and its associated testing phase.

30. What are some of the advantages of using the V-model?

Some of the primary advantages of using the V-model.

  • It allows us to develop test plans early, making them more successful.
  • It works reasonably well, even for small-scale projects with few requirements.
  • It is very simple and requires relatively little effort.
     

31. What are the drawbacks of the V Model?

  • It is a more expensive model than the Waterfall model because it requires a large amount of resources, budget, and time.
  • Coordination and upkeep are difficult.
  • It is difficult to adopt changes in requirements and add new requirements in the middle of the process.
  • For proper implementation, a process must be established.
     

32. What is a Big Bang model?

The Big Bang model follows no particular process, and very little time is spent planning. Even consumers are unsure of what they want, and the requirements are implemented. This is typically used for minor projects and is inappropriate for larger projects.

 

33. What are the benefits of using the SDLC model?

  • The SDLC model provides maximum management control throughout the software product development life cycle.
  • This approach aids in the development of intermediate products and allows the product to be modified per user-defined standards and needs.
     

34. What are the drawbacks of using the SDLC model?

  • Documentation is time-consuming and costly to create.
  • Users can sometimes not evaluate and review intermediate products (such as data flow diagrams) per their requirements.

Frequently Asked Questions

What exactly does STLC stand for?

STLC is an abbreviation for Software Testing Life Cycle. Software testing is a five-step process that includes the following stages:

  • Test Planning
  • Test Design
  • Test Execution
  • Evaluating the Exit criteria
  • Test Closure

What is SDLC process in an interview?

The term "Software Development Life Cycle" (SDLC) is an acronym. It is a series of actions that provide a clear paradigm for quickly developing and managing the lifetime of high-quality, low-cost software. The goal of the SDLC is to provide mediocre software that exceeds client expectations and requests. It is very often asked in interviews.

What are the 5 stages of SDLC?

The 5 stages of SDLC are:

  • Requirement Analysis
  • Design
  • Implementation and coding
  • Testing
  • Maintenance

What are the 7 phases of SDLC?

The 5 phases of SDLC are:

  • Requirement Analysis
  • Project Planning.
  • Design
  • Implementation and coding
  • Testing
  • Deployment
  • Maintenance

What are the 5 stages SDLC?

The five stages of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) are Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation, and Maintenance. Each stage plays a crucial role in the development and deployment of software systems, ensuring quality and efficiency throughout the process.

Conclusion

We have extensively discussed the SDLC interview questions in this article. Mastering SDLC interview questions requires a comprehensive understanding of the software development lifecycle's intricacies. From planning and analysis to design, implementation, and maintenance, each stage plays a pivotal role in delivering successful software projects.  

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