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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Characteristics of sensors
2.1.
Static Characteristics
2.1.1.
Sensitivity 
2.1.2.
Resolution
2.1.3.
Linearity 
2.1.4.
Drift 
2.1.5.
Hysteresis
2.2.
Dynamic Characteristics
3.
Sensor Classification
3.1.
Passive & Active
3.2.
Analog & Digital
3.3.
Scalar & Vector
4.
Frequently Asked Questions
4.1.
What are the characteristics of a suitable sensor?
4.2.
What is the function of the sensor?
4.3.
What are the characteristics of a smart sensor?
5.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Jun 5, 2024
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Sensors Characteristics

Author Utkarsha Singh
3 upvotes
Master Python: Predicting weather forecasts
Speaker
Ashwin Goyal
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Introduction

We are continuously surrounded by electronic equipment that makes our lives easier in our fast-paced technology world, whether in our homes, factories, hospitals, grocery stores, shopping malls, building sites, or cars. Sensors are the name for these gadgets. So, let's delve a little more into the subject and look at what sensors are.

The five sensory organs of the human body such as the ears, which detect sound; the nose, which detects an odor, the eyes, which detect light; the tongue, which detects taste; and the skin, which detects the hotness or coolness of other bodies, are analogous. Similarly, a sensor is an electronic device that detects and responds to some form of physical input and converts the output signal into a human-readable format.

 Read about: Sensors vs ActuatorsSensors in IoT
 

                                                                                   Source:eduCBA

Characteristics of sensors

The general features of sensors are two, namely.

  • Static characteristics
  • Dynamic Characteristics

Static Characteristics

After a steady-state condition, it's about how a sensor's output changes in reaction to an input change. After stabilizing, the static accuracy reveals how well the sensor signal accurately represents the recorded quantity (i.e., beyond the brief period.) Sensitivity, resolution, linearity, zero drift and full-scale drift, range, repeatability, and reproducibility are some of the static characteristics of sensors.

Sensitivity 

It calculates the sensor's output change concerning a unit change in the input (the measured quantity). For instance, the speakers we buy for our home entertainment system may have a sensitivity rating of 79 dB Signal Pressure Level per Watt per meter.

Resolution

The slightest change in the input that the sensor can detect and reliably point out is called resolution. A conventional ruler, for example, has a precision of about 1mm, whereas a vernier caliper has a resolution of 0.0001 inches.

Linearity 

The calibration curve determines linearity. Under fixed conditions, the static calibration curve plots the output versus input amplitude. The linearity is explained by its resemblance to a straight line.

Drift 

When a sensor is held at a given value for an extended time, it deviates from that reading. The change in sensor output when the input is held constant at a level that (at first) provides a zero reading is referred to as zero drift. Similarly, if the information is kept at a value that initially produces a full-scale deflection, the full-scale drift is the drift. Changes in ambient pressure, temperature, humidity, and so on, or changes in the constituents of the sensor itself, such as age, wear, and so on, could be the cause.

Hysteresis

The sensors' input and output characteristic curves do not match throughout the input change from minor to major (positive stroke) and vice versa, resulting in hysteresis (reverse stroke).

                                                                                         Source: i-scoop

 

Dynamic Characteristics

The sensor's dynamic characteristics refer to the properties of the sensor's output while the input changes. The dynamic features of a sensor are typically expressed in real-world applications by its response to a set of standard input signals. This is because the sensor's response to a standard input signal is easy to measure experimentally, and the sensor's response to the standard input signal and its response to any other input signal has a strong correlation. Knowing the former is commonly used to estimate the latter. The sensor's key dynamic features are occasionally stated as step-domain unit response performance indicators and frequency-domain frequency characteristics performance indicators; therefore, step response performance indicators are frequently used to convey its dynamic characteristics.

Knowing the dynamic characteristics of a sensor might help you choose the right one. It may show the sensor's many signs and assess whether they are appropriate for the scenario at hand using rigorous discrimination.

Check out: Difference between Sensor and Transduce,Choosing the best sensor for the job

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Sensor Classification

Passive & Active

  • Passive sensors: These sensors, such as thermocouples, pick up signals or energy from their surroundings without generating any energy of their own. 
     
  • Active sensors: These sensors, like sonar or radar, release energy and measure the reflection or response.

Analog & Digital

  • Analog sensors: Products such as thermistors that continuously output signals in proportion to the quantity being measured. 
     
  • Digital sensors: These include digital thermometers that output discrete signals or digital data, frequently utilizing binary code.

Scalar & Vector

  • Scalar sensors: Determine simply the magnitude of a quantity, such as pressure or temperature sensors. 
     
  • Vector sensors: Such as accelerometers or gyroscopes, measure quantities with both magnitude and direction.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the characteristics of a suitable sensor?

Accuracy, Output impedance, Reliability, Repeatability, and Range.                               

What is the function of the sensor?

A sensor's function is to detect and measure physical properties such as temperature, light, pressure, motion, or chemical composition, and convert this information into electrical signals. These signals are then processed or recorded for analysis and control purposes.

What are the characteristics of a smart sensor?

Self-identification, multi-sensing capability, and digital-sensor data are the characteristics of a smart sensor.

Conclusion

This article taught us about the characteristics of Sensors. We discussed the static and dynamic characteristics of sensors.

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