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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Services Provided by Operating System 
2.1.
Program execution
2.2.
Control Input/output devices
2.3.
Program Creation
2.4.
Error Detection and Response
2.5.
Accounting
2.6.
Security and Protection
2.7.
File management
2.8.
Communication
2.9.
Networking
2.10.
Time Management
2.11.
Resource Management
3.
Frequently Asked Questions
3.1.
What are the services provided by the operating system?
3.2.
Which service is not provided by an operating system?
3.3.
Who provides the interface to access the services of the operating system?
4.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Apr 1, 2024
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What Are The Basic Services Provided By The Operating System?

Author Sanjana Yadav
0 upvote
Roadmap to SDE career at Amazon
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Anubhav Sinha
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25 Jun, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

Introduction

Regardless of size or use, every computer needs an operating system to run and be helpful. The operating system is a necessary component of modern computer systems. It is a well-organized group of programs that handle the hardware.

Operating System

An operating system facilitates communication between users and computer hardware. A user is a person who sits at a computer terminal and is concerned with the application rather than the computer's architecture. The user never directly interacts with the hardware. To obtain hardware services, he must request the operating system.

user->os->hardware

The operating system is a primary resource manager. It manages the hardware, including processors, memory, Input-Output devices, and communication devices.

The operating system operates either in kernel mode or user mode. Compilers and editors run in user mode, whereas operating system code runs in kernel mode.

Also see: Multiprogramming vs Multitasking, Open Source Operating System.
 

Must Read Process Management in OS

Services Provided by Operating System 

The Operating System provides the programming environment where a programmer works on a computer system. The user software uses the operating system to request various resources. Utility programmers and users can take advantage of numerous services provided by the operating system. These services are accessed by application programming interfaces (APIs) or system calls. The application can use those APIs to request a service from the operating system, pass parameters and get the action results.

An operating system provides the following services.

  • Program Execution
  • Control Input/output Devices
  • Program Creation
  • Error Detection and Response
  • Accounting
  • Security and Protection
  • File management
  • Communication
  • Networking
  • Time management
  • Resource management

Program execution

Several steps must be completed for a program to be executed. Instructions and data must both be loaded into the main memory. Input-output devices and files should also be initialized, and other resources should be provisioned. Operating structures handle these types of jobs. The user no longer needs to be concerned about memory allocation, multitasking, or anything else.

Control Input/output devices

Because there are several sorts of I/O devices inside the computer system, each I/O device has its own specific set of instructions for functioning. The operating system conceals the information by presenting a consistent interface. As a result, programmers may simply access such devices.

Must Read: Demand Paging in OS

Program Creation

The operating system provides structures and tools, like editors and debuggers, to assist programmers in creating, modifying, and debugging programs.

Error Detection and Response

An error in a device might cause the entire device to malfunction. These include hardware and software failures such as device failure, memory issues, division by zero, attempts to access restricted memory regions, etc. The operating system monitors the system for problems and takes appropriate action with little impact on running applications to prevent mistakes.

Errors can often occur when dealing with computers. Errors are possible in the following:

Input/ Output devices: For example, a network connection failure, a printer out of paper, etc.

User program: For instance, try to access unauthorized memory locations, divide by zero, or utilize excessive CPU time.

Memory hardware: For example, memory errors, memory overload, etc.

The operating system takes necessary action and generates notifications to guarantee proper and consistent computation when these and other sorts of errors occur.

Accounting

An error in a device might cause the entire device to malfunction. These include hardware and software failures such as device failure, memory issues, division by zero, attempts to access restricted memory regions, etc. The operating system monitors the system for problems and takes appropriate action with little impact on running applications to prevent mistakes.

Errors can often occur when dealing with computers. Errors are possible in the following:

Input/ Output devices: For example, a network connection failure, a printer out of paper, etc.

User program: For instance, try to access unauthorized memory locations, divide by zero, or utilize excessive CPU time.

Memory hardware: For example, memory errors, memory overload, etc.

The operating system takes necessary action and generates notifications to guarantee proper and consistent computation when these and other sorts of errors occur.

Security and Protection

To improve overall performance, an operating device gathers usage statistics for various assets and measures overall performance metrics and response time. These personal records are useful for future updates and adjustments to improve overall performance.

The operating system provides security for a person's statistics and packages and protection from unauthorized users. The security function protects the operating device against dangers broadcast by people outside of its control.

For Example:

When a user downloads software from the internet, that application might include malicious code that harms other programs. While downloading such apps, the operating system guarantees that suitable checks are performed.

If a pair of users share a computer system, the various processes must be safeguarded from another incursion. For this, the operating system provides several methods that allow only those processes to access resources that have received valid operating system authorization. The technique might involve assigning each user a unique user id and password.

Also see, Protection in Operating System

File management

Secondary storage devices, such as magnetic tape, magnetic disc, an optical disc, are used by computers to store Data and Information. Speed, capacity, data transfer rate, and data access techniques are all characteristics of a storage medium.

For file management, the operating system must understand the various file formats as well as the properties of various storage devices. It must also provide the proportion and security method for documents.

Communication

The operating system coordinates the transfer of data and programs between computers connected via a network. Message passing and shared memory are used to facilitate this communication.

Networking

Operating systems provide networking services to enable communication between devices and systems over a network. This includes managing network connections, protocols, and data transmission. Key aspects of networking services provided by operating systems include:

  • Network Configuration: Operating systems allow users to configure network settings such as IP addresses, DNS servers, and network interfaces.
  • Protocol Support: They support various networking protocols such as TCP/IP, UDP, HTTP, FTP, etc., enabling communication between devices using standardized protocols.
  • Network Security: Operating systems implement security measures such as firewalls, encryption, and authentication to protect networked systems from unauthorized access and malicious attacks.
  • Resource Sharing: They facilitate resource sharing across networks, allowing users to access files, printers, and other networked resources from remote locations.

Time Management

Time management services provided by operating systems ensure accurate timekeeping and synchronization across devices. Key aspects of time management services include:

  • Clock Management: Operating systems maintain system clocks to keep track of time, including real-time clocks (RTC) for hardware timekeeping and system clocks for software timekeeping.
  • Time Synchronization: They synchronize system clocks with external time sources such as network time servers to ensure accurate timekeeping across devices and networks.
  • Time Measurement: Operating systems provide facilities for measuring time intervals, scheduling tasks, and timing system events.
  • Timer Management: They manage hardware timers for generating periodic interrupts and scheduling tasks based on time intervals.

Resource Management

Resource management services provided by operating systems ensure efficient allocation and utilization of system resources. Key aspects of resource management services include:

  • Processor Management: Operating systems schedule processes and threads for execution on the CPU, managing task prioritization, context switching, and CPU scheduling algorithms.
  • Memory Management: They allocate and manage memory resources, including virtual memory management, memory paging, and memory protection mechanisms.
  • Device Management: Operating systems control access to I/O devices, manage device drivers, and handle device interrupts to facilitate communication between devices and the CPU.
  • File System Management: They manage file storage and access, including file allocation, directory structures, file permissions, and file I/O operations.
  • Power Management: Operating systems implement power-saving features to optimize energy consumption and extend battery life on mobile devices, including sleep mode, hibernation, and power management policies.
     

You can also read about the memory hierarchy and Multiprocessing Operating System

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Frequently Asked Questions

What are the services provided by the operating system?

An operating system serves as a bridge between the user, their applications, and the hardware. It's a tool for managing hardware resources. It helps application programs by providing services.

Which service is not provided by an operating system?

The operating system does not support networking functions. A computer network is a group of computers connected via network nodes and sharing resources.

Who provides the interface to access the services of the operating system?

System Calls provides an interface for accessing operating system functions.

Conclusion

In this article, we have extensively discussed the services provided by the operating system. We learned services like control input/output devices, program creation, program execution, error detection and correction, etc.

Recommended Readings: 


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