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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
What is Cryptography?
3.
Digital Certificate in Cryptography
3.1.
Types of Digital Certificates
4.
Digital Signature
4.1.
Method of Creating Digital Signatures
5.
What is Encryption?
5.1.
Types of Encryption
5.2.
How did Encryption work?
5.3.
Why is Encryption used?
6.
Difference Between Signing and Encrypting
7.
Frequently Asked Questions
7.1.
What is a session key?
7.2.
What is DSA in cryptography?
7.3.
What is a blind signature scheme?
7.4.
What is RSA?
7.5.
What distinguishes RSA from DSA?
8.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Signing and Encrypting in Cryptography

Author Ayush Mishra
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Introduction

In our day-to-day life, cyber threats, and fraud are increasing every day to steal the data of public. Cryptography decrypts the information, text messages, and emails using a cipher to ensure security and authentication against cyber threats and protects them from cyber attacks.

In this blog, we will discuss Signing and Encrypting in Cryptography in detail. Let's start going!

Signing and Encryption in Cryptography

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is a technique for encrypting data and communications so that only the intended audience can read and process it. It is used to decrypt messages which is difficult to decipher.

Some technical terms related to cryptography are-

1. Private Key: It is a key that is only known to the Owner.

2. Public Key: It is a key that is known to everyone.

3. Authentication: Any procedure a system uses to confirm the identity of a user attempting to access it is known as authentication.

4. Integrity: It is the assurance that the message was not changed while being transmitted.

5. Non-repudiation: It is a way to ensure that both the sender and the recipient cannot later deny having sent or received the message.

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Digital Certificate in Cryptography

Digital Certificate in Cryptography

A digital certificate, which authenticates the identity of a website, person, group, user, device, or server, is an electronic file linked to a pair of cryptographic keys. It is also known as a public key certificate. 

Public key cryptography can be used to verify the reliability of the software or website you are using. A reputable CA on the Internet signs a certificate, which is then verified using the authority's public key. The decrypted certificate contains the real public key of the certificate's Owner, which is required to set up encrypted HTTPS communications.

A web browser may issue a warning when a user installs software or accesses a website whose digital certificate has not been verified by an established CA.

Types of Digital Certificates

There are four types of Digital Certificates.

1. Code signing certificates: They are used by software developers and publishers to verify the distribution of their products. End users can use them to download software from vendors or developers once they have been verified and authenticated.

2. Email signing certificates: They enable secure email attachments and give users access to the Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions protocol, which they can use to sign, encrypt, and authenticate emails.

3. Object signing certificates: These allow authentication and signature of any software object.

4. User/client signing certificates: These help people comply with various authentication requirements.

Digital Signature

It is a mathematical process to verify whether a text, piece of software, or digital document can have integrity and authenticity.

It has the ability to sign a document in two different ways: as the entire document or as a digest. It is used to achieve Integrity,  Authentication, and non-repudiation.

Method of Creating Digital Signatures

The procedures for creating a digital signature is as follows:

1. The message's hash function calculates the message digest, which is then encrypted with the sender's private key to create the digital signature.

2. The message is then sent along with a digital signature.

3. The receiver uses the sender's public key to decrypt the digital signature.

4. The recipient can calculate the message digest from the message sent.

5. For integrity to be guaranteed, the message digest computed by the receiver and the message digest obtained by decrypting the digital signature must match.

What is Encryption?

Encryption is the process of converting digital data into ciphertext, a form that is difficult for anyone to understand except authorized parties. It uses a private key to decrypt the data.

Signing and Encrypting protect the data with security. Additionally, along with signing, they are used in concert to meet corporate compliance requirements.

Types of Encryption

There are two types of Encryption defined in cryptography:-

1. Symmetric Encryption:- In this type of Encryption, a key is used to encrypt data, and the key is also used to decrypt data.

2. Asymmetric Encryption:-  It encrypts and decrypts data using public and private keys. The pair's public key can be distributed to anyone. The private key is the other key in the pair that is kept private and is only known by the Owner.

How did Encryption work?

It is the process of turning regular text, like in an email or text, into an u format not understood by anyone, known as "cipher text." It helps secure digital data stored on or circulated over a network, such as the internet, on computer systems.

How did Encryption work?

When the intended recipient accesses the message, a process known as decryption transforms the cipher text back into its original form.

Why is Encryption used?

The following validates the use of Encryption in daily life.

1. It protects our privacy online by converting sensitive data into cipher text.

2. Many massive data thefts we may have read about in the news demonstrate that cybercriminals are looking to steal personal information for financial gain.

3. Companies can abide by regulatory requirements and specifications by using Encryption. Additionally, it aids in protecting their client's sensitive data.

Difference Between Signing and Encrypting

The key difference between signing and encrypting are:-

Signing

Encrypting

The document is signed using the signer's private key. The recipient decrypts the data that has been encrypted in emails or documents using the private key.
The message in the email or document is authenticated using a signature. Sensitive information in an email or document is encoded using Encryption.
After identity has been confirmed, the user's signature is stored in a digital signature certificate. The sender's identity is verified and authenticated using a digital signature certificate to generate the encryption keys.
The receiver verifies the signature with the sender using the public key provided by the sender. An email or document's contents are encrypted by the sender using his or her public key.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a session key?

A session key is a single-use key that can be sent with every message and encrypted with the recipient's public key. A session key protects communications between two computers, a user, a client, and a server. 

What is DSA in cryptography?

DSA stands for Digital Signature Algorithm. DSA is a cryptographic algorithm that creates keys, signs data and authenticates signatures.

What is a blind signature scheme?

This digital signature hides the message's content before it is signed. This is used when the message author and the signer are different parties. Blind signature schemes can be implemented using RSA and DSA.

What is RSA?

RSA is a public key algorithm for key management in digital signatures. It computes a modulus that can be used as a key, along with the recipient's public key, to send an encrypted message using a large number of prime factors.

What distinguishes RSA from DSA?

While DSA is slower at verifying, it is faster at signing. DSA employs 1024 bits. RSA can handle 2048 bits or more. DSA can only be used for Encryption, whereas RSA can be used for Encryption and authentication.

Conclusion

Congratulations on finishing the blog! We have discussed Signing and Encrypting in Cryptography. We further discussed digital signatures, Encryption, and certificate in cryptography.

We hope this blog has helped you enhance your knowledge of Signing and Encrypting in CryptographyDo not stop learning! We recommend you read some of our Cryptography articles: 

1. What is Cryptography?

2. Public Key Cryptography

3. Public Key vs Private key

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