Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com. Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com
Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
SQL Server Date Functions
2.1.
Data and Time format in SQL Server
2.2.
Need of Date and Time functions in SQL Server📅
2.3.
Categories of SQL Server Date and Time functions
2.4.
Returning the Validate Date and Time Value
2.5.
We are Returning the Date and Time Parts.
2.6.
Returning the Date and Time Difference Values ⏳
2.7.
Returning the Modify Date and Time Values
2.8.
Set or Return Session Format Functions
2.9.
Validation of Date and Time values
2.10.
Constructing Date and Time from their Parts
2.11.
MySQL Date Functions📑
2.12.
Examples 
3.
Frequently Asked Questions
3.1.
What is SQL?
3.2.
What is Database?
3.3.
What is a primary key?
3.4.
What is a Foreign key?
3.5.
What is the distinction between date and datetime in SQL Server?
3.6.
Does date arrange the matter in SQL?
4.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

SQL Server Date Functions

Author Adya Tiwari
0 upvote
Master Python: Predicting weather forecasts
Speaker
Ashwin Goyal
Product Manager @

Introduction

Hello, Ninja! 🥷This blog will discuss some critical Date functions in SQL Server.

SQL Server is a relational database management system developed and maintained by Microsoft. Its primary duties are storing, retrieving, and altering data in response to requests from other software programs. SQL Server has appeared as one of the most significant Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) with many applications. Because it is such an important subject, technical interviews frequently include questions regarding SQL Server.

If you are unfamiliar with SQL, don't worry. You may check our SQL articles, which will assist you in learning and understanding SQL at all levels.

So let's go down to the SQL Server Date functions without spending any more time. 😃

SQL Server Date Functions

SQL Server has appeared as one of the most significant Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) with many applications.

The date and time functions allow us to handle date and time data effectively. When dealing with the database, it is essential to match the date and time functions format when putting data into the table. The date and time functions will be thoroughly covered in this blog. We may filter valuable data from a large amount of data using various built-in methods in SQL Server. It might help create and maintain a sizable database.

In SQL Server, many different data types may be utilized as the date in our table. 'YYYY-MM-DD' and 'DD-MM-YYYY' are the two most common date formats. We occasionally also need to use the data stored in our database to save time. We need tools in these situations to retrieve the time and date independently. The time and features of SQL Server come in handy here.

Additionally, it is advised that the novice exercise caution while utilizing date or time in the database because these are susceptible to throwing exceptions if not appropriately handled.

Data and Time format in SQL Server

The date and time formats used by SQL Server are as follows:

DATE: YYYY-MM-DD

YEAR: YYYY or YY

DATETIME: YYYY-MM-DD HH: MI: SS

TIMESTAMP: YYYY-MM-DD HH: MI: SS

Need of Date and Time functions in SQL Server📅

Numerous date and time operations are available in SQL Server. The purpose of including them is to guarantee that the date and time module is used when creating and using databases.

Categories of SQL Server Date and Time functions

There are various categories of SQL Server Date and Time Functions

🔅 Returning the Date and Time Parts

🔅 Returning the System Date and Time Values

🔅 Returning the Modify Date and Time Values

🔅 Returning the Date and Time Difference Values

🔅 SET or Return Session Format Functions

🔅 Returning the System Date and Time Values

🔅 Returning the Values of the Date and Time from Their Components

Returning the Validate Date and Time Value

The computer's operating system, on which SQL Server is installed, is the source of all system date and time information.

Functions that return system date and time functions are

1.GETUTCDATE: The current UTC date and time values are obtained using this function as an integer.

2. GETDATE: The system's current date and time on which the SQL Server is installed may be obtained using this method.

3. SYSDATETIME: The system's current date and time may be obtained using this function with greater fractional second accuracy and without taking the time zone offset into account.

4. SYSUTCDATETIME: Using the UTC timestamp as an integer, this method retrieves the system's current date and time value.

5. CURRENT_TIMESTAMP: The current date and time values without the time zone offset may be obtained using this function.

We are Returning the Date and Time Parts.

A part of the date and time can be extracted using the date and time functions indicated in the table below in terms of the daymonthyearhourminutesecondweeknanoseconds, etc.

Functions that return system date and time functions are

1DAY: This function extracts the day value from the provided dates as an integer.

2MONTH: This function extracts the month value from the provided dates as an integer.

3YEAR: The year value from the provided dates is obtained as an integer using this function.

4DATENAME: Using this method, a character string representing a day, month, or year of the date may be obtained.

5DATEPART: This function may obtain the date section as an integer number.

Database in SQL

Returning the Date and Time Difference Values ⏳

This returns the difference between date and time. The method used to determine the dates that differed:

DATEDIFF: This function will calculate the difference between the two input date components.

Returning the Modify Date and Time Values

We use this to manipulate or change the system/input timestamp values. Functions to manipulate the system input timestamp values are

1. SWTICHOFFSET: This function changes a DateTime offset value's timezone offset while keeping the UTC value intact. In SQL Server, the SWITCHOFFSET() capability can be utilized to return a datetimeoffset esteem that is transformed from the put-away time region offset to a predefined new time region offset.

2TODATETIMEOFFSET: The DATETIME2 value is converted into a DATETIMEOFFSET value. The SQL Server DateTimeOffset information type stores the date and time alongside the Time Zone Offset. It is like both DateTime and DateTime2 information types. Then again, the DateTime and DateTime2 don't store the Time Zone Offset. Likewise, DateTime is less exact than DateTime2.

3. EOMONTH: With the given date and an optional offset, this method returns the month's final dayReturns the chronic number for the last day of the month, the demonstrated number of months prior or after start_date. Use EOMONTH to compute development dates or due dates that fall on the previous day of the month.

4. DATEADD: The new date value is returned by this function after adding an integer value to the date portion of the input dates. You can utilize the DateAdd capability to add or deduct a predetermined time stretch from a date. For instance, you can use DateAdd to compute a date 30 days from today or 45 minutes from now. To add days to date, you can utilize Day of Year ("y"), Day ("d"), or Weekday ("w").

Set or Return Session Format Functions

Format Errors in SQL

To set the date and time values for a particular session, use the following functions:-

1. SET DATEFIRST: The first day of the week is set using this method to a value between 1 and 7. The SET DATEFIRST capability sets the principal day of the week from 1 to 7. To know the ongoing first day of the week, @@DATEFIRST is utilized.

2. SET DATEFORMAT: When DateTime or smalldatetime data is input, this function establishes the order of the date parts (month, day, and year). To refresh with the ongoing date and time: UPDATE table_name SET date_field = CURRENT_TIMESTAMP; To refresh with particular date esteem: UPDATE table_name SET date_field = 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS.

3. SET LANGUAGE: The language for the system and system messages is set using this function.

Validation of Date and Time values

We can use the following date function to check whether the specified date format is valid or not in SQL Server. The correct date format is yyyy-mm-dd.

ISDATE: This function determines whether the dates entered follow the accepted format for date, time, or datetime values.

Constructing Date and Time from their Parts

To build the date and time from its component components, we may utilize SQL Server's following date function.

1. DATEFROMPARTS: With the help of this function, you may extract a date value from the given day, month, or year. The DATEFROMPARTS() capability returns DATE esteem that guides to a year, month, and day values. The DATEFROMPARTS() capability acknowledges three contentions: a year is a whole number articulation that makes plans for a year.

2. DATETIME2FROMPARTS: This function converts the date and time parameters into a DATETIME2 value. DATETIME2FROMPARTS returns invalid if something like one required contention has a null worth. Notwithstanding, if the accuracy contention has a null price, DATETIME2FROMPARTS will raise a blunder.

3. DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS: This method uses date and time inputs to generate a DATETIMEOFFSET value. DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS expects a time region offset of 00:00 - at the end of the day, no time region offset. For indicated offset contentions, DATETIMEOFFSETFROMPARTS anticipates values for the two ideas, and the two qualities are positive or negative.

4. TIMEFROMPARTS: This method is used to precisely extract a time value from the time components. The parts contention relies upon the accuracy contention. For instance, if accuracy is 7, each portion addresses 100 nanoseconds; on the off chance that accuracy is 3, each part addresses a millisecond. If the worth of accuracy is zero, the worth of portions should likewise be zero; in any case, a mistake is raised.

Date an Time in SQL

MySQL Date Functions📑

The accompanying table records the main implicit date capabilities in MySQL:

Examples 

To get a rundown of all legitimate date and time designs, you could utilize the code beneath and change the @date to GETDATE() or some other date you need to utilize. This will yield simply the legitimate configurations. 🧑‍💻

DECLARE @counter INT = 0
DECLARE @date DATETIME = '2006-12-30 00:38:54.840'

CREATE TABLE #dateFormats (dateFormatOption int, dateOutput nvarchar(40))

WHILE (@counter <= 150 )
BEGIN
   BEGIN TRY
      INSERT INTO #dateFormats
      SELECT CONVERT(nvarchar, @counter), CONVERT(nvarchar,@date, @counter) 
      SET @counter = @counter + 1
   END TRY
   BEGIN CATCH;
      SET @counter = @counter + 1
      IF @counter >= 150
      BEGIN
         BREAK
      END
   END CATCH
END
SELECT * FROM #dateFormats

Must Recommended Topic, Schema in DBMS

Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job
Bootcamp

Frequently Asked Questions

What is SQL?

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. It serves as the standard language for relational database management systems. It is beneficial when dealing with structured data of entities (variables) and their relationships.

What is Database?

A database is a structured data collection digitally stored and accessible via a local or distant computer system. Large and complicated databases are sometimes created utilizing set design and modeling techniques.

What is a primary key?

The PRIMARY KEY constraint assigns each entry in a table a unique identifier. It contains an implied NOT NULL constraint and must include UNIQUE data.

What is a Foreign key?

A FOREIGN KEY is a column or group in a database that directly relates to the PRIMARY KEY in another table.
A foreign key restriction guarantees referential integrity in the relationship between two tables.

What is the distinction between date and datetime in SQL Server?

The DATE type is utilized for values with a date part yet no time part. MySQL recovers and shows DATE values in the ' YYYY-MM-DD ' design. The upheld range is '1000-01-01' to '9999-12-31' . The DATETIME type is utilized for values containing date and time.

Does date arrange the matter in SQL?

Regardless of how frequently we change language and date organization, the put away worth will continue as before.

Conclusion

Finally, you have reached the article's conclusion. Congratulations!! You gained knowledge of SQL Server Date Functions in this blog. You looked at the different date and time functions to handle date and time effectively. These capabilities perform date math. The date is a DATETIME or DATE esteem determining the beginning date.

The expr is an articulation indicating the stretch worth to be added or deducted from the beginning date.

Are you eager to read more articles on SQL Server? Coding Ninjas cover you, so don't worry. 

Also Read - TCL Commands In SQL

Please refer to our guided pathways on Code studio to learn more about DSA, Competitive Programming, JavaScript, System Design, etc. Enroll in our courses, and use the accessible sample exams and questions as a guide. For placement preparations, look at the interview experiences and interview package. ur career an edge over others!

Do upvote our blogs if you find them helpful and engaging!

Happy Learning!

 

Previous article
SQL Server Aggregate Functions
Next article
MS SQL Server String Functions
Live masterclass