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Prerita Agarwal

Data Specialist @

23 Jul, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

Introduction

Hello Ninja! So are you learning to code in Carbon Language? Thatâ€™s great! We've got a simple yet exciting problem for you to check out. You will be able to write a program that can swap two numbers after reading this article. We will focus on two ways to solve this problem in detail.

Before we begin, let us quickly look at the Carbon Programming language.

Carbon Programming Language

Carbon-lang was introduced as an open-source, experimental heir to C++. C++ is the most popular programming language among developers, despite the fact that there are many others. It is used by more than 4.4 million developers all over the world. To resolve some of the flaws of C++, Carbon was launched in July 2022. Google initiated this project. It is currently accepting contributions by developers on GitHub. You must be wondering why Google decided to introduce a totally new language instead of improving C++.

The reason is that making changes to C++ is quite hard, even for a big firm like Google. This is due to the focus on backward compatibility, the tight governance behind the language, and a long approval process that might take years.

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Features of Carbon Programming Language

Some of the features of the Carbon Programming language are listed below:

Like its predecessor (C++), Carbon is intended to provide performance advantages through a Low-level virtual machine ( LLVM ).

Carbon can invoke C++ language code and vice versa.

It supports the migration of code from C++ to Carbon.

Carbon allows developers to create fast and scalable builds.

The entire language is publicly accessible via GitHub, where anyone may contribute to the Program focused on their aims and priorities.

Now let's come to our problem statement.

Problem Statement

Write a program for swapping two numbers in the Carbon programming language.

Explanation

You will be given two numbers, and you need to swap those numbers. For example, Assume you have two integer type variables, z and x. Initially, the value stored in z is 5, and the value stored in x is 10. After swapping, the value of z should be 10, and the value of x should be 5.

Look at this image to realize this example better.

Now that we know our problem statement and what we have to do, letâ€™s see how we can solve this problem.

Solution Using a Temporary Variable

This is the first solution that comes to mind after reading the problem. What we can do is, create a temporary variable (say, temp). This variable can be used to temporarily store one of the input values. It allows us to swap easily without losing any data.

Let us look at the algorithm that we will use for swapping two numbers in carbon using a temporary variable.

Algorithm

The algorithm for swapping two numbers in carbon is as follows:

Input two numbers, z and x.

Store the value of z in temp.

Store the value of x in z.

Store the value of temp in x.

Look at the image that follows to visualize the above-stated algorithm.

Let us look at the code now.

Implementation in Carbon

// Program for swapping two numbers using temporary variable
package sample api;
fn Main() -> i32 {
// Using a temporary variable
var z: i32 = 10;
var x: i32 = 5;
var t: i32 = 0; // Temporary variable
// Values before swapping
Print("Before swap");
Print("z: {0}", z);
Print("x: {0}", x);
Print("t: {0}", t);
// Swapping
t=z;
z=x;
x=t;
// Values after swapping
Print("After swap");
Print("z: {0}", z);
Print("x: {0}", x);
Print("t: {0}", t);
return 0;
}

Input

z = 10

x = 5

Output

Complexities

Time Complexity

O(1) is the time complexity.

Reason: This is because this code takes constant time to execute.

Space Complexity

O(1) is the space complexity.

Reason: The space complexity remains constant O(1). The temporary variable has no impact on the time complexity.

Using the following algorithm, we can write the program for swapping two numbers in carbon by using addition and subtraction together:

Algorithm

The algorithm for swapping two numbers in carbon using addition and subtraction is as follows:

Input two numbers, z and x

Add z and x and store their sum in z.

Subtract x from z and store in x.

Subtract x from z and store in x.

Look at the image that follows to visualize the algorithm.

Implementation in Carbon

// Program to swap to numbers in carbon using addition and subtraction
package sample api;
fn Main() -> i32 {
// Input
var z : i32 = 10;
var x : i32 = 5;
// Before swap
Print("Before Swapping, ");
Print("z is {0}", z);
Print("x is {0}", x);
// Swapping
z = z+x;
x = z-x;
z = z-x;
// After Swap
Print("After Swapping, ");
Print("z is {0}", z);
Print("x is {0}", x);
return 0;
}

Input

z = 10

x = 5

Output

Using Multiplication and Division Operations:

We can also write a program for swapping two numbers in Carbon by using the multiplication and division operations together. We will use the following algorithm for this approach.

Algorithm

The algorithm for swapping two numbers in carbon using multiplication and division is as follows:

Input two numbers, z and x

Multiply z and x and store their product in z.

Divide z by x and store the result in x.

Divide z by x and store the result in z.

Look at the image that follows to visualize the algorithm.

Implementation in Carbon

// Program to swap to numbers in carbon using multiplication and division
package sample api;
fn Main() -> i32 {
// Input
var z : i32 = 15;
var x : i32 = 20;
// Before swap
Print("Before Swapping, ");
Print("z is {0}", z);
Print("x is {0}", x);
// Swapping
z = z*x;
x = z/x;
z = z/x;
// After Swap
Print("After Swapping, ");
Print("z is {0}", z);
Print("x is {0}", x);
return 0;
}

Input

z = 15

x = 20

Output

Complexities

Time Complexity

O(1) is the time complexity.

Reason: This is because this code takes constant time to execute.

Space Complexity

O(1) is the space complexity.

Reason: The space complexity remains constant O(1). The temporary variable has no impact on the time complexity.

Bitwise Operators

In contrast to standard logical operators (such as +, -, *), which function on bytes or groups of bytes, the bitwise operators may verify or set each bit within a byte. Overflow is never caused by bitwise operators. This is because the result always lies within the acceptable limits for the numeric type concerned.

The bitwise operators used in Carbon are as follows:

AND

OR

XOR

NOT

Left shift

Right shift

Bitwise XOR Operator

The bitwise XOR ( ^ ) operator in Carbon accepts two operands. It performs an XOR operation on each bit of the two numbers. The result of the & operation is 1 only if one of the two bits is 1. The result will be 0 if both bits are 1 or both bits are 0. Simply put, if the bits are different, XOR will give 1 as a result. If both bits are the same, XOR will give a result of 0.

Now let's find out how we can use bitwise XOR for swapping two numbers in carbon.

Solution Using bitwise XOR operator

We can use bitwise XOR for swapping two numbers in carbon. The XOR of two integers x and y yields a number with all bits set to 1 wherever x and y vary.

Let us look at the following algorithm to see how we can use it for swapping two numbers.

Algorithm

The algorithm for swapping two numbers in carbon using bitwise XOR is as follows:

Input two numbers, z and x.

Use logical XOR on z and x and store the result in z.

Use logical XOR on z and x and store the result in x

Apply logical XOR to z and x and store the result in z.

Look at the image that follows to visualize the algorithm.

Implementation in Carbon

// Program for swapping two numbers in carbon using bitwise XOR
package sample api;
fn Main() -> i32 {
var z : i32 = 15;
var x : i32 = 10;
// Before swap
Print("Before Swap ");
Print("z is {0}", z);
Print("x is {0}", x);
// Swapping
z = z^x;
x = z^x;
z = z^x;
// After swap
Print("After Swap ");
Print("z is {0}", z);
Print("x is {0}", x);
return 0;
}

Input

z =15

x = 10

Output

Complexities

Time Complexity

O(1) is the time complexity.

Reason: This is because this code takes constant time to execute.

Space Complexity

O(1) is the space complexity.

Reason: The space complexity remains constant O(1). The temporary variable has no impact on the time complexity.

Frequently Asked Questions

Who is the creator of the Carbon Programming language?

Carbon was initially announced by Google developer â€śChandler Carruthâ€ť in July 2022 at the CppNorth conference in Toronto.

Is carbon going to be the next C++?

Carbon is the successor to C++, which was made to overcome its flaws. Carbon is currently in the experimental stage and will undoubtedly be a strong contender for the C++ successor.

What is the Carbon Programming language used for?

Carbon is intended to promote software and language evolution while creating performance-critical software. Another primary purpose is to create code that is simple to read, comprehend, and write.

Is Carbon capable of compiling C++ code?

Carbon is intended to be compatible with C++ Programs and to facilitate migration. The Carbon toolchain will be able to compile C++ code.

Is Carbon an interpreted language?

Carbon is a bytecode-interpreted scripting language with smart pointers for safe memory deallocation.

Conclusion

We understood the problem of swapping two numbers in the Carbon Programming language. We also implemented the code using two different approaches.