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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Ruby Definition
3.
Syntactic structure
3.1.
Ruby’s Flexibility
3.2.
Block Structure in Ruby
3.3.
Visual Appearance of Ruby
3.4.
Ruby Sees Everything as an Object
4.
Frequently Asked Questions
4.1.
What syntax does Ruby use?
4.2.
What is the structure of the Ruby programming language?
4.3.
Do you need a return statement in Ruby?
4.4.
Is Ruby interpreted or compiled?
4.5.
What is the name of the Ruby compiler?
5.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Syntactic structure in Ruby

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Introduction

In this blog, we will learn about the Syntactic structure in Ruby. Ruby is a lively, open-source programming language emphasising ease of use and productivity. It features an attractive syntax that is simple to read and write. Now we will go over how those lexical tokens fit together to form a Ruby program's more enormous syntactic structures. This article describes the syntax of the Ruby program, beginning with the most straightforward statements and progressing to the most significant modules.
 

Ruby Definition

Ruby is a dynamic programming language with a complicated but expressive grammar and a comprehensive and powerful API in its core class library. Lisp, Smalltalk, and Perl inspire Ruby, but it uses a grammar that is simple to learn for C and JavaTM programmers. Ruby is an object-oriented programming language that may also use for procedural and functional programming. It has extensive metaprogramming capabilities and can be used to develop DSLs (domain-specific languages).

Ruby is a carefully balanced language. Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto, the language's developer, combined elements of his favourite languages (Perl, Smalltalk, Eiffel, Ada, and Lisp) to create a new language that balanced functional and imperative programming.

In a way that parallels life, he has often stated that he is "trying to make Ruby natural, not simple."

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Syntactic structure

The expression is the most basic unit of syntax in Ruby. The Ruby interpreter is a programme that evaluates expressions and returns values. Primary expressions, which represent values directly, are the simplest. Primary expressions include number and string literals, which were discussed earlier in this chapter. Some keywords, such as true, false, nil, and self, are also main expressions. Variable references are primary expressions as well; they evaluate the variable's value. 
 

Compound expressions can be used to express more complex values:

[1,2,3]  #An Array literal
{1=>"one", 2=>"two"} #A Hash literal
1..3  #A Range literal

To execute computations on values, operators are utilised, and compound expressions are created by combining simpler subexpressions with operators:

1 (#A primary expression)
x (#Another primary expression)
x = 1 (#An assignment expression)
x = x + 1 (#An expression with two operators)

 

Statements like the if statement for conditionally executing code and the while statement for continually executing code can be created by combining expressions with Ruby's keywords:

if x < 10 then (#If this expression is true)
    x = x + 1 (#Then execute this statement)
   end   (#Marks the end of the conditional)
   while x < 10 do (#While this expression is true)
    print x (#Execute this statement)
    x = x + 1 (#Then execute this statement)
   end

Ruby’s Flexibility

Ruby is regarded as a versatile language since it allows users to freely modify its components. Ruby's core components can be deleted or redefined at any time. Existing components can be enhanced. Ruby makes every effort to keep the coder's freedom.
 

The plus (+) operator, for example, is used to execute addition. However, if you prefer to use the more readable word plus, you may add a method to Ruby's Numeric class.
Code:

class Number
  def plus(n)
    self.+(n)
  end
end
m = 3.plus 6
#m is now equal to 9

Note: The operators in Ruby are a kind of syntactic sugar for methods. You can also redefine them.
 

Block Structure in Ruby

A block structure is used in Ruby programming. Blocks of nested code can be found in module, class, and method definitions, as well as most Ruby statements. These blocks are separated by keywords or punctuation and are indented two spaces from the delimiters by convention. In Ruby programming, there are two types of blocks. A "block" is the formal name for one type. These are the code chunks that are linked to or supplied to iterator methods:
 

Code:


search_engines =
  %w[Google Yahoo MSN].map do |engine|
    "http://www." + engine.downcase + ".com"
  end


3.times { print "Ruby! " }

 

Visual Appearance of Ruby

Ruby uses some punctuation to adorn itself, although it employs relatively little punctuation and prefers English terms. Variable declarations are not required in Ruby. The scope of variables is denoted using simple naming conventions.

  • Var may be a local variable.
  • The symbol @var denotes an instance variable.
  • A global variable is $var.

These sigils improve readability by allowing the programmer to quickly identify each variable's function. It is also no longer required to employ a tiresome self. Every instance member has a prefix.

Ruby Sees Everything as an Object

Everything in Ruby is an object. Every piece of data and code can have its own set of characteristics and actions. Properties are referred to as instance variables in object-oriented programming, and actions are referred to as methods. The pure object-oriented approach of Ruby is best exemplified by a piece of code that performs an action on a number.

Code:

6.times { print "We *love* Ruby" }

In many languages, numbers and other primitive kinds are not objects. Ruby adopts Smalltalk's impact by providing methods and instance variables to all of its types. This makes it easier to use Ruby because rules that apply to objects apply to all of Ruby.

Frequently Asked Questions

What syntax does Ruby use?

The Ruby programming language has a syntax that is very similar to Perl and Python. Keywords are used to indicate class and method definitions, whilst braces or keywords can be used to indicate code blocks. Variables do not need to be prefixed with a sigil, unlike Perl.

What is the structure of the Ruby programming language?

Because Ruby is an object-oriented programming language, the program is organised by creating classes, modules, and methods. Ruby features classes that are open to change at any time (even the core ones, like String ). Refinements can be used to localise class modifications and implement hygienic extensions.

Do you need a return statement in Ruby?

Unless an explicit return comes before it, Ruby methods ALWAYS return the evaluated result of the last line of the expression. Use the return keyword if you want to return a value explicitly.

Is Ruby interpreted or compiled?

As previously stated, Ruby is commonly compiled. At least in some circumstances, the output of that compilation is then interpreted; there are also implementations that JIT-compile (Rubinius and IIRC JRuby compile to Java bytecode after a while).

What is the name of the Ruby compiler?

Matz's Ruby Interpreter, or MRI, is the name given to the first Ruby interpreter. This version is written in C and runs on a Ruby-specific virtual machine.

Conclusion

In this blog, we have extensively discussed the Syntactic structure in Ruby. We hope that this article has helped all of you with additional information about the Ruby programming language. And to learn in-depth about Structure-execution, check out the course on our Ruby on the Coding Ninjas website. For more information about ruby, you can visit Ruby-Coding Ninjas and Ruby on Rails Coding Ninjas blogs.

Recommended Readings: 

Difference Between Procedural and Object Oriented Programming 
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