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Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
Technical Interview Questions for Freshers
2.1.
1. What is stack memory?
2.2.
2. What is heap memory?
2.3.
3. Briefly explain the four pillars of OOPs.
2.4.
4. What is the difference between Object Oriented Programming and Procedural Oriented Programming?
2.5.
5. What is meant by  “Reentrancy”?
2.6.
6. Explain database partitioning.
2.7.
7. What do you understand by Normalization?
2.8.
8. What is a foreign key?
2.9.
9. Explain the approaches to develop algorithms?
2.10.
10. Define the tree data structure.
2.11.
11. What is a Doubly-linked list?
2.12.
12. Mention the application of stack and queue data structure.
2.13.
13. What do you mean by ACID properties?
2.14.
14. Briefly explain the Insertion sort. List the advantages of the Insertion sort.
2.15.
15. Differentiate between TCP and UDP.
3.
Technical Interview Questions for Intermediate
3.1.
15. Where do we use dynamic programming?
3.2.
16. Differentiate between i++ and ++i in java?
3.3.
17. What is Belady's anomaly?
3.4.
18. Why are maps implemented using red-black trees?
3.5.
19. What is the difference between == and === in javascript?
3.6.
20. Compare calloc() and malloc() in C.
3.7.
21. What are checksums?
3.8.
22. List the advantages of a Multiprocessor system.
3.9.
23. Define Network Topology and explain the different types of Network Topology.
3.10.
24. Compare DDL and DML in SQL?
4.
Technical Interview Questions for Experienced
4.1.
21. Explain inheritance with a code example.
4.2.
Java
4.3.
22. What are white box testing and black box testing?
4.4.
23. How do you check invalid email addresses in SQL?
4.5.
SQL
4.6.
24. Explain the following git commands: git reset, git rebase, and git stash.
4.7.
25. Compare Binary trees and B-trees.
4.8.
26. How do AVL trees balance themselves? Explain the different types of rotations present in AVL trees.
4.9.
27. Explain the differences between REST and SOAP web services
4.10.
28. How is an inverted page table better than a normal page table? Also, explain the multi-level paging concept.
4.11.
29. What are overlays?
4.12.
30. What is a Translation Lookaside buffer (TLB)? What are the advantages and challenges associated with TLB?
5.
Frequently Asked Questions
5.1.
What are the basic questions asked in technical interview?
5.2.
How do I prepare for a technical interview?
5.3.
What is Accenture technical interview?
5.4.
What do basic IT skills include?
6.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
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Top Technical Interview Questions for Freshers (2024)

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Introduction

The technical interview rounds play a crucial role in assessing a candidate's performance. These rounds enable interviewers to effectively evaluate a candidate's technical abilities and problem-solving skills. The questions asked during technical interviews typically cover DBMS, OS, CN, C++, Java, and OOPs.

To help you prepare for your technical interview, this article provides insights into some of the most critical Technical Interview Questions typically asked during these rounds.

Top Technical Interview Questions and Answers

Technical Interview Questions for Freshers

Welcome to this section, where we will explore Beginner-level technical interview questions essential for every fresher candidate to know. By going through this section, you can build a solid foundational knowledge of technical interview concepts. These fundamental concepts will prepare you for the technical interview and give you the confidence to answer questions effectively.

1. What is stack memory?

Ans. The memory space utilized by computers to store variables declared inside of functions and local scopes is known as the stack memory. It's used for local variables, function parameters, return addresses, and more.

2. What is heap memory?

Ans. Heap memory is a region of a computer's memory that is used for dynamic memory allocation, meaning you can allocate memory at runtime and free it when no longer needed.
 

3. Briefly explain the four pillars of OOPs.

Ans. Let's dive into the four fundamental pillars of Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs), which are crucial for building effective and efficient software solutions.

  1. Encapsulation: Encapsulation involves wrapping attributes, variables, and code into a single unit, where direct access to specific data members and functions is restricted by data hiding. This technique enhances security and code maintainability, like when several medicines are enclosed in a capsule. In Java, encapsulation can be achieved by using the private access modifier.
     
  2. Inheritance: This property allows a class to acquire the characteristics and properties of another class. In other words, the child class (subclass) inherits the attributes and behaviors of the parent class (base class). This technique improves code reusability and simplifies code development, similar to how children inherit qualities from their parents.
     
  3. Abstraction: Abstraction involves hiding all the code complexity while only displaying the essential details. It can be achieved through abstract classes or interfaces. For instance, one does not need to understand the engine's functionality to drive a car, making the code more manageable and efficient.
     
  4. Polymorphism: This property allows for multiple forms to exist simultaneously. It means that a message can be displayed in various ways. For example, a father can play the role of a brother, uncle, son, etc., at the same time. Polymorphism enhances code flexibility and extensibility, leading to better software development.
     

Understanding these four pillars of OOPs is critical for developing robust, scalable, and maintainable software solutions.

4. What is the difference between Object Oriented Programming and Procedural Oriented Programming?

Ans. The difference between OOPs and POP is explained in the table below.

Object Oriented Programming (OOPs)

Procedure Oriented Programming (POP)

In Object Oriented Programming (OOPs), the whole program is broken into objects that interact with each other to perform a particular task. Procedure Oriented Programming (POP) breaks the whole program into small methods or functions.
Access specifiers like private, public, protected, etc., are present. No access specifiers are present.
OOPs follows a bottom-up approach, i.e., the more minor problems are solved first, which combine to solve a bigger problem. POP follows a top-down approach, i.e., the bigger problem is divided into sub-problems and repeated.
Code reusability is possible here. Procedure-oriented programming does not allow the reusability of code.
Oops, support the concept of inheritance. The concept of inheritance is not applicable in POP.
Object Oriented Programming supports method overloading. Procedure Oriented programming does not support method overloading.
Ex. Java, C++, Python Ex. C, PASCAL, Basic

5. What is meant by  “Reentrancy”?

Ans. The term "reentrancy" in computer science describes a quality of a piece of code or software module that allows it to be safely called again (or "re-entered") before the initial invocation has finished. To put it another way, a reentrant function or module is made to be used by a number of jobs or threads running simultaneously without resulting in conflicts or unexpected behavior.

6. Explain database partitioning.

Ans. A database design strategy called database partitioning is used to enhance the manageability, scalability, and performance of big databases. It entails creating divisions that are smaller, easier to handle sections of a huge database. A portion of the data and indexes from the original database are present in each partition.

7. What do you understand by Normalization?

Ans. Normalization is a crucial process of organizing data in a database to avoid data redundancyinconsistency, and update, insert, and delete anomalies. By collecting data into tables and establishing relationships between them, Normalization helps to minimize data duplication and dependency, leading to better database performance and efficiency. Normalization can be achieved in several levels, including 1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF, 4NF, and 5NF.

1NF requires that a table should not have repeated tuples and cannot be broken down into smaller, manageable tables. To achieve 2NF, a table must be in 1NF, and each non-key column should be entirely dependent on the table's primary key. In 3NF, a table should meet the requirements of 2NF, and each non-key column should be independent of other non-key columns.

BCNF, 4NF, and 5NF are advanced levels of Normalization that offer additional benefits in terms of reducing data redundancy and improving database performance. However, it's essential to note that Normalization may increase the complexity of the database, so it should be applied according to specific needs and database requirements.

You can also refer to the article Normalization in DBMS to learn more about Normalization.

8. What is a foreign key?

Ans. The FOREIGN KEY constraint establishes a link between two tables. It refers to a child table column containing the foreign key to the parent table column containing the primary key. Thus a foreign key is also known as a referencing key. That means the insertion of only those data is possible which are related to the parent table. Any unauthorized or unwanted data is not allowed in the database. A foreign key maintains a database's referential and data integrity.

9. Explain the approaches to develop algorithms?

Ans.The methods for creating algorithms are summarized as follows:

  • Brute Force: Try every option; it's straightforward but perhaps ineffective
  • Divide and conquer: Separate a problem into smaller ones, address each one separately, then combine your findings
  • Dynamic programming: Decompose large issues into smaller, overlapping subproblems in order to find solutions
  • Greedy Algorithm: Make locally optimal decisions at each stage while aiming for a global optimum with the greedy algorithm
  • Backtracking: Recursively explore trails and backtrack when you come to a dead end
  • Randomized Algorithms: Algorithms that have been "randomized" make use of unpredictability as a key component of their logic
     

10. Define the tree data structure.

Ans. The tree data structure is a hierarchical, non-linear data structure consisting of nodes or elements connected in a hierarchical manner. The root node represents the main tree, and the child nodes form subtrees. The tree data structure simplifies insertion, deletion, and search operations, resulting in more efficient algorithms. Binary trees, AVL trees, Red-black trees, and B-trees are some examples of commonly used tree data structures, each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages, making it essential to choose the right tree structure for the specific problem at hand.

11. What is a Doubly-linked list?

Ans. A Doubly Linked List is a type of linked list in which each node has a data element and two pointers that point to the previous and next nodes. This structure enables bidirectional traversal, which means that you can traverse the list in both forward and backward directions. While a doubly linked list requires more memory than a singly linked list, its flexibility makes it popular for many applications. For example, web browsers use a doubly linked list to implement forward and backward navigation. This allows users to quickly move between pages they have already visited without needing to reload them.

12. Mention the application of stack and queue data structure.

Ans. A stack is a data structure where elements are stored in a linear fashion. It obeys the last-in-first-out rule. The stack data structure has multiple applications. Some of them are:

  • Undo/Redo functionality.
  • Implementation of corresponding tags in HTML.
  • Infix/Postfix operations.
  • Reversal of strings.
     

A queue is a data structure similar to the stack that follows the first-in-first-out rule. The applications of the queue are:

  • Queues are used to implement BFS (Breadth-First Search).
  • Management of traffic in transportation.
  • Scheduling of tasks depending on their priority.

13. What do you mean by ACID properties?

Ans. ACID properties refer to a set of properties that ensure the reliability and consistency of database transactions. These properties include AtomicityConsistencyIsolation, and Durability

  • Atomicity guarantees that a transaction is either completed entirely or not at all. If a transaction is not completed, it is rolled back, and any changes are undone. 
  • Consistency ensures that the database's integrity constraints are maintained and not violated by a transaction. 
  • Isolation guarantees that one transaction does not interfere with another transaction. Transactions are executed independently of each other to maintain consistency. 
  • Durability ensures that changes made by a committed transaction are permanent and will not be lost, even if the system fails. 
     

By adhering to the ACID properties, database systems ensure that data is consistent, reliable, and secure.

14. Briefly explain the Insertion sort. List the advantages of the Insertion sort.

Ans. Insertion sort can be compared to the sorting of playing cards. Here the array is divided into two parts: sorted and unsorted. The first card is assumed to be sorted, and then an element from the unsorted part is picked and arranged at the correct position in the sorted part. Insertion sort is a sorting algorithm used to sort arrays and lists that are small in size. The time complexity of the insertion sort is O(n^2).

The advantage of this sorting algorithm include the following:

  • It is simple to implement.
  • It is the most efficient sorting algorithm if the array is almost sorted.
  • It is an in-place sorting algorithm. Hence no extra memory space is required. 

15. Differentiate between TCP and UDP.

Ans.

TCP

UDP

TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol.
Before the transmission of any data, a connection is established between two endpoints in TCP. In UDP, establishing a connection is not necessary for data transmission.
TCP ensures that all the data packets are transmitted in the correct order. UDP does not guarantee the delivery of data in order.
In TCP, some additional information is added to the data packets and hence has a larger packet size. UDP has a comparatively smaller packet size as it does not include additional details.
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Technical Interview Questions for Intermediate

The following section aims to enhance your understanding of various technical concepts. We will delve into intermediate-level technical interview questions that may be asked during interviews.

15. Where do we use dynamic programming?

Ans. Dynamic programming is the process by which a program is broken down into subproblems which, after solving their solutions, are stored for further use in the future. Dynamic programming can be used to solve optimization problems where the best solution is to be discovered, and game theory for finding the best strategy for a player. Dynamic programming follows two approaches to problem-solving techniques:

  1. The top-down approach: In this approach, recursion stores the solution of the sub-problems in an array. This is also known as memoization. 
     
  2. The bottom-up approach: In this approach, based on the solution of the smaller sub-problems, their respective sub-problems can be solved. Thus while using this approach, we first solve all the smaller problems and then move upwards to solve more significant issues.

16. Differentiate between i++ and ++i in java?

Ans. i++ and ++i are both increment operators in Java. They differ in the method they use to update the value of the operand i. While i++ is the post-increment operator, i.e., it first uses the value of the operand and then updates it. In contrast, the ++i operator is the pre-increment operator that first updates the value of the operand and then uses it.

For example:

x=10;
cout<<x++;
cout<<x;
cout<<++x;


Output:

10 11 12

17. What is Belady's anomaly?

Ans. Belady's anomaly is a phenomenon that can occur in certain memory management algorithms, such as page replacement algorithms in operating systems.

Page replacement algorithms are used when a computer system needs to swap out pages of memory from physical memory (RAM) to disk to make room for new pages. The goal of a page replacement algorithm is to minimize the number of page faults (when a process needs a page that is not in physical memory) by selecting the least recently used page to swap out.

Belady's anomaly occurs when a page replacement algorithm that generally performs well with fewer frames of physical memory available (such as the Least Recently Used algorithm) serves worse as more frames of physical memory are added. This is because, in some cases, adding more physical memory can cause more page faults to occur, even though the system has more available memory.

This phenomenon was discovered by the computer scientist L. Belady in 1969 and has important implications for system designers and users, as it shows that simply adding more physical memory to a system does not always improve performance in the way one might expect.

18. Why are maps implemented using red-black trees?

Ans. Maps are often implemented using Red-Black Trees because these data structures have several properties that make them well-suited for this task:

  1. Balanced: Red-Black Trees are flat, meaning that the depth of the tree is limited, and the worst-case time complexity for search, insert, and delete operations is O(log n). This is important for maps, where efficient searching and modification of key-value pairs are required.
     
  2. Ordered: Red-Black Trees maintain their keys in sorted order, which is vital for maps because it allows for efficient range queries and traversal of key-value pairs in sorted order.
     
  3. Self-balancing: Red-Black Trees are self-balancing, meaning that they automatically adjust their structure to maintain balance when new nodes are added or deleted. This makes them more stable and less prone to performance degradation than other balanced tree structures.
     

Overall, the combination of balance, ordering, and self-balancing properties of Red-Black Trees make them an ideal choice for implementing maps.

19. What is the difference between == and === in javascript?

Ans. Both == and === are used in javascript to compare equality. The == first brings the data type of one value to the other (if both values to be compared are of different data types) using type coercion before checking for equality. On the other hand, === checks for strict equality of values, i.e., a boolean value true is returned for the === equality check only if both the data type and values are equal; otherwise, it will return a false.

20. Compare calloc() and malloc() in C.

Ans. calloc() and malloc() are functions in the C programming language used in dynamic memory allocation.

  • calloc() accepts two arguments:
    • The number of elements to allocate the memory for
    • The size of each component
       
  • malloc() takes in a single argument: the total size of the memory block to be allocated.
     
  • calloc() initializes the allocated memory to zero. Whereas malloc() does not initialize the allocated memory.
     
  • calloc() is slower than malloc() because of the initialization of allocated memory.

21. What are checksums?

Ans. Checksums are a type of data validation technique used to verify the integrity of data. They involve generating a fixed-size digital fingerprint, also called a hash value or checksum, of a data set using a mathematical algorithm. This checksum is then compared with the original checksum to ensure that the data has not been corrupted or altered in transit.

Checksums are commonly used in Computer Networks to detect errors in data transmission, such as during file transfers or email messages. They are also used in data storage systems to ensure the integrity of data over time and in software applications to verify the authenticity of software updates or installations. Suppose the checksum generated during transmission or storage does not match the original checksum. In that case, it is assumed that the data has been altered or corrupted, and steps can be taken to correct the errors.

22. List the advantages of a Multiprocessor system.

Ans. The advantages of a multiprocessor system are:

  • It is cost-effective as all the processors share all the buses and peripherals.
  • Parallel computing is possible with the help of numerous processors.
  • The throughput is increased considerably with numerous processors as work can be done faster.
  • Since the workload is shared among multiple processors, the system's reliability increases.

23. Define Network Topology and explain the different types of Network Topology.

Ans. Network topology refers to the alignment of computers, PCs, routers, switches, and other components in a computer network. It specifies the connections between the devices and data transmission between them. Network topologies are of many types, including the bus topology, the mesh topology, the star topology, the ring topology, the tree topology, and the hybrid topology.

  • Bus topology: All devices are connected via a single cable, and the communication channel is shared. If the line fails, the entire network is disrupted.
     
  • Mesh topology: Here, every device is connected to other devices in the network. Therefore it results in multiple paths for data transmission. This increases the reliability of the system.
     
  • Star topology: Here, each device is connected to a central hub. All communication passes through the hub.
     
  • Ring topology: In a ring topology, all the computers are connected in a circular loop where each device is connected to the next. The failure of one single device can destroy the entire network.
     
  • Tree topology: Here, the devices are arranged in a hierarchical structure. This topology increases the scalability of the network but is complex to build.
     
  • Hybrid topology: It is known as hybrid topology when multiple topologies are grouped to form a custom network design. Mesh topologies improve the reliability and efficiency of the network.

24. Compare DDL and DML in SQL?

Ans. DDL stands for Data Definition Language. They are used to define the structure of the database. DDL commands include CREATEALTER, etc. On the other hand, DML stands for Data manipulation language . They are used to manipulate and make changes to the database. DML commands include INSERTUPDATEDELETE, etc. 

Technical Interview Questions for Experienced

This section comprises Advanced-level questions that would make you confident enough to sit for your IT interviews and crack them with flying colors.

21. Explain inheritance with a code example.

Ans. Inheritance in Object Oriented Programming is the property by which a class acquires the attributes and behavior of another class. Here the class from which the properties are inherited is known as the parent class, and the class which gains the properties is known as the child class. The child class uses the extends keyword to inherit from the parent class.

  • Java

Java

//base class 
class Bird {
void fly() {
System.out.println("flying...");
}
}

//sub-class of class Bird
class Sparrow extends Bird {
void chirp() {
System.out.println("chirping...");
}
}

//subclass of class Sparrow
class little_sparrow extends Sparrow {
void eat() {
System.out.println("eating...");
}
}

class Inheritance {
public static void main(String args[]) {

//creating object for class little_sparrow
little_sparrow sp = new little_sparrow();

//calling function of the base class
sp.eat();

//calling functions of the derived class
sp.fly();
sp.chirp();
}
}


Output: 

eating…
flying…
chirping…

22. What are white box testing and black box testing?

We use white and black box testing to check the software application's functionality. In black box testing, the user/tester does not require any knowledge of the internal design of the application; instead only looks at the inputs and outputs. Black box testing tests APIs and User interfaces that communicate with the external components.

For white box testing, the tester should have complete knowledge of the software code structure, branch coverage, and Path. All are tested here. It is used to test algorithms and data structures.

23. How do you check invalid email addresses in SQL?

Ans. To check invalid email addresses in SQL, you can use regular expressions to match the email format. Here's an example query:

  • SQL

SQL

SELECT email 
FROM Table_Name
WHERE NOT email REGEXP '^[a-zA-Z0-9._%+-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9.-]+\.[a-zA-Z]{2,}$';

This query will return all email addresses that do not match the standard email format. The regular expression used in this query checks for the following:

  • The email address should start with one or more letters, digits, dots, underscores, percent signs, plus signs, or hyphens.
  • The "@" symbol should follow the above characters.
  • The domain name should consist of one or more letters, digits, dots, or hyphens, followed by a dot and two or more letters.
  • The email address should not contain any invalid characters.

24. Explain the following git commands: git reset, git rebase, and git stash.

Ans. The following is the explanation of each of the following GitHub commands:

  • Git reset: This command is used to undo changes and move the current branch to a specified commit. It is helpful in cases where you want to undo a commit or multiple commits.
     
  • Git rebases: This Git command is used to apply the changes of one branch to another branch. It is helpful in cases where you want to update your feature branch with the latest changes from the main branch or any other branch.
     
  • Git stash: This command temporarily saves changes that are not ready to be committed yet. It is helpful in cases where you want to switch to another branch or pull changes from a remote repository without committing your local changes.

25. Compare Binary trees and B-trees.

Ans. 

Binary trees

B trees

In binary trees, at most, two child nodes or sub-trees are possible for a specific node. The maximum number of child nodes possible for a B tree is equal to the order of the tree.
The balancing in a binary tree can be disrupted if nodes are inserted or deleted. B-trees are self-balancing trees. That means it adjusts its nodes automatically, thereby maintaining a consistent depth and balance.
The height of a binary tree is proportional to the log value of the number of nodes.  The height of a B-tree is proportional to the log value of the number of nodes * the order of the tree.
The nodes in a binary tree are not arranged in a sorted manner. The nodes of a B tree are sorted in order of traversal.
Binary trees can be applied in Huffman coding and code optimization problems. B-trees can be applied in DBMS to store and retrieve large amounts of data efficiently.

26. How do AVL trees balance themselves? Explain the different types of rotations present in AVL trees.

Ans. AVL trees are self-balancing binary search trees, meaning they automatically maintain their balance by adjusting their structure. An AVL tree is said to be balanced if the height difference between the left and right sub-trees is at most 1. If the tree becomes unbalanced due to an insertion or deletion, then rotations are performed to balance the tree.

There are four possible types of rotations in AVL trees: left rotationright rotationleft-right rotation, and right-left rotation.

  1. Left Rotation: When a node's right subtree is taller than its left subtree by two or more, the AVL tree undergoes a left rotation. In this rotation, the unbalanced node's right child becomes the subtree's new root, and the unbalanced node becomes the left child of its new right child.
     
  2. Right Rotation: When a node's left subtree is taller than its right subtree by two or more, the AVL tree undergoes a right rotation. In this rotation, the unbalanced node's left child becomes the subtree's new root, and the unbalanced node becomes the right child of its new left child.
     
  3. Left-Right Rotation: When a node's left subtree is taller than its right subtree by two or more, and the left child's right subtree is taller than its left subtree, the AVL tree undergoes a left-right rotation. In this rotation, the left child is rotated right first, followed by a left rotation of the unbalanced node.
     
  4. Right-Left Rotation: When a node's right subtree is taller than its left subtree by two or more, and the right child's left subtree is taller than its right subtree, the AVL tree undergoes a right-left rotation. In this rotation, the right child is rotated left first, followed by a right rotation of the unbalanced node.

Through these rotations, AVL trees maintain their balance by ensuring that the height difference between each node's left and right sub-trees is at most 1.

27. Explain the differences between REST and SOAP web services

The difference between REST and SOAP web services are:

REST SOAP
REST stands for Representational State Transfer. SOAP stands for Simple Object Access Protocol.
REST uses Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) to access components. SOAP uses WSDL (Web Services Description Language) file to describe the services.
REST supports various data formats. SOAP can only work with XML.
REST focuses on resources and interaction based on HTTP methods. SOAP uses services interfaces exposed through WSDL files.
REST services are often considered more flexible. SOAP is less flexible.

28. How is an inverted page table better than a normal page table? Also, explain the multi-level paging concept.

Ans. An inverted page table is a data structure used by an operating system to keep track of page tables of a process. It stores each page table's physical memory address, the corresponding process identifier (PID), and the virtual page number. This approach is more memory efficient than the traditional page table structure because it eliminates the need to store a separate page table for each process. In an inverted page table, the size of the table is determined by the number of physical frames instead of the virtual address space.

One of the advantages of an inverted page table is that it reduces memory overhead, especially in systems with large numbers of processes or a large virtual address space. In a system with a traditional page table, the overhead can be significant because each process requires its own page table, even if many of the page tables are not fully utilized.

Multi-level paging is another approach to address the overhead memory problem. In a multi-level paging system, the virtual address space is divided into smaller chunks, and each chunk is mapped to a page table. Each page table is then further divided into smaller chunks, and each is mapped to another table. This process continues until the smallest chunk size is reached.

The advantage of multi-level paging is that it allows for a more fine-grained mapping of virtual memory to physical memory. This approach is useful in systems with ample virtual address space because it reduces the page table size needed to map the entire virtual address space. Additionally, it reduces the memory overhead associated with page tables because it only requires the creation of page tables for the parts of the virtual address space that are being used.

29. What are overlays?

Ans. In computing, overlays refer to a programming technique used to enable a program to be larger than the amount of memory available to run it. The basic idea behind overlays is to divide a large program into smaller logical units or sections and load only those required at any given time into memory.

The process of overlaying involves loading a base program into memory and then overlaying it with additional sections or overlays as needed. This allows the program to perform complex tasks while using minimal memory resources.

Overlays were commonly used in early computer systems with limited and expensive memory. However, with the advent of larger memory sizes, faster processors, and better operating systems, overlays have become less common.

30. What is a Translation Lookaside buffer (TLB)? What are the advantages and challenges associated with TLB?

Ans. Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) is a hardware cache used in computer systems to speed up virtual address translation. It is a small, fast memory that stores the most recently accessed virtual-to-physical address translations.

When a program needs to access memory, the virtual address is sent to the memory management unit (MMU), which translates it to a physical address using a page table. The TLB is used to store a subset of these translations, allowing the MMU to quickly look up the physical address without having to access the page table in memory.

Advantages of TLB:

  • Speed: By storing frequently used address translations, TLB reduces the time it takes to access memory.
  • Efficiency: TLB reduces the number of memory accesses required for address translation, which can improve overall system performance.
  • Reduced power consumption: As TLB minimizes the need to access the page table in memory, it can help reduce power consumption.
     

Challenges associated with TLB:

  • Limited size: TLB is limited in size and can only store a subset of the total number of virtual-to-physical address translations. If the TLB is too small or the working set of memory is too large, there may be a high TLB miss rate, which can negatively impact performance.
  • Context switching: When switching between different processes, the contents of the TLB may need to be flushed to prevent address translation errors. This can be time-consuming and may impact performance.
  • Coherency: If the page table is updated while an entry in the TLB is still valid, there may be inconsistencies between the TLB and the page table, leading to errors or unexpected behavior. To prevent this, TLB may require additional hardware support to maintain coherency.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the basic questions asked in technical interview?

Technical interview questions generally cover programming, algorithms, data structures, problem-solving, coding challenges, system design, databases, OOP concepts, web technologies, and problem-solving questions.

How do I prepare for a technical interview?

To prepare for a technical interview, one must study core concepts, practice coding problems, review algorithms and data structures, and simulate interview scenarios through mock interviews.

What is Accenture technical interview?

An Accenture technical interview is a selection process where candidates are evaluated based on their technical skills, problem-solving abilities, and relevant experience for potential roles within the company.

What do basic IT skills include?

Basic IT skills courses encompass fundamental computer understanding, file management, word processing, spreadsheets, databases, presentations, information retrieval, and communication skills.

Conclusion

Congratulations on completing the above technical interview questions! You have gained valuable knowledge and practice that can aid you in securing your dream IT job. We appreciate your time and effort in reviewing the questions. We hope you found the article helpful, and we encourage you to check out other related articles to further enhance your understanding of technical concepts -

You can also consider our Interview Preparation Course to give your career an edge over others.

All the best, and Happy Learning!

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