Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com. Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com
Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
The Four-layer Architecture
2.1.
Sensing Layer
2.2.
Network Layer
2.3.
Data Processing Layer
2.4.
Application Layer
3.
The Five-layer Architecture
3.1.
Transport Layer
3.2.
Processing Layer
3.3.
Business Layer
4.
The Seven-layer Architecture
4.1.
Sensors
4.2.
Sensors to Gateway Network
4.3.
Gateways
4.4.
Gateways to Internet Network
4.5.
Data Ingestion and Information Processing
4.6.
Internet to User Network:
4.7.
Value-added Information:
5.
Frequently Asked Questions
5.1.
How many layers does IoT have?
5.2.
What should be the design considerations in an IoT system?
5.3.
What are the basic components of an IoT system?
5.4.
How can IoT be used in Home Automation?
5.5.
How can IoT be used in Health Sector?
6.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
Easy

The Architecture of IoT

Author Lucifer go
0 upvote
Master Python: Predicting weather forecasts
Speaker
Ashwin Goyal
Product Manager @

Introduction

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a paradigm in which items with sensors, actuators, and processors connect to accomplish a specific goal. The Internet of Things (IoT) technology has a wide range of applications, and its use is rapidly increasing. 

It functions differently according to how it was designed/developed, depending on the area of application where it is used. However, it lacks a well-defined working architecture that is widely followed. 

The architecture of the Internet of Things is determined by its usefulness and application in various industries. The Internet of Things is constructed on a simple procedural flow. In this article, we will discuss the basic 4-layer architecture of IoT which can be further split into 7 different layers for more elaboration.

The Four-layer Architecture

The four main layers that make up the basic structure of an IoT system are the Sensing Layer, Data processing Layer, Network Layer, and Application Layer.

Sensing Layer

This Sensing layer contains sensors, actuators, and devices. These sensors or actuators take in data (physical/environmental characteristics), process it, and then send it across the network.

Network Layer

This layer contains Internet/Network gateways and Data Acquisition Systems (DAS). DAS is in charge of data aggregation and conversion (Collecting and aggregating data, then converting analog sensors data to digital data, etc). Advanced gateways, which primarily link Sensor networks to the Internet, also handle several fundamental gateway functions such as virus prevention and filtering, as well as decision-making based on inputted data and data management services, among others.

Data Processing Layer

This is the IoT ecosystem's processing unit. Data is evaluated and pre-processed here before being sent to a data center, where it is accessible by software programs, also known as business apps, that monitor and manage data and plan subsequent actions. As a result, edge IT or edge analytics enters the picture.

Application Layer

This is the final stage of the IoT architecture's four phases. Data centers, often known as the cloud, are data management centers where data is maintained and used by end-user applications such as agriculture, health care, aerospace, farming, and the military.

Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job
Bootcamp

The Five-layer Architecture

The three-layer design encapsulates the core concept of the Internet of Things. However, it is insufficient for IoT research because it frequently concentrates on more minor details.

As a result, many additional layered structures have been presented in the literature. One example is the five-layer architecture, which also covers the processing and business levels.

The five levels are perception, transport, processing, application, and business. The perception and application levels provide the same purpose as the four-layer architecture. The remaining three levels are described below.

Transport Layer

Through networks such as WiFi, 3G, LAN, Bluetooth, RFID, and NFC, the transport layer sends sensor data from the perception layer to the processing layer and vice versa.

Processing Layer

The processing layer is also known as the middleware layer. Vast volumes of data from the transport layer are stored, analyzed, and processed. It can administer and deliver a variety of services to the lower levels. Databases, cloud computing, and extensive data processing modules are among the technologies used.

Business Layer

The business layer is in charge of the whole IoT system, including apps, business and profit models, and users' privacy. The scope of this study does not include the business layer. As a result, we will not continue to debate it.

Figure showing 4-layer and 5-layer Architecture

The Seven-layer Architecture

The IoT system can be further divided into seven layers for analysis of more minute details.

Sensors

This consists of sensors and actuators that take in data and then process it.

Sensors to Gateway Network

In every IoT system, this is the first network layer. It is in charge of data transmission from the first layer (sensors) to the third layer (gateways). Sensor data is sent to gateways using a communication protocol with its rules, syntax, semantics, and synchronization standards.

Some common protocols are BLE, LoRaWAN, ZigBee, and Sigfox.

Gateways

Data aggregators called gateways take data from sensors and deliver it to a backend system. They're essentially routers or modems that serve as a link between the local sensor network and the internet. They gather information from sensors within their range and send it to an ingesting data platform.

Gateways to Internet Network

Similar to the sensor to gateway network, this network facilitates the transmission of data from the gateway to the internet/backend systems.

Data Ingestion and Information Processing

The raw data acquired in the preceding four levels are turned into relevant information in this layer. In most situations, data is kept in the cloud and accessible via a mobile app or online application's backend system. The ingested data is transformed into value-added information and shown on the user's displays using advanced analytics and other processing methods.

Internet to User Network:

This is the final network layer of any end-to-end IoT system. The raw data stored in the cloud system is called by this network and displayed on the screen of the user in the form of value-added information. 

Value-added Information:

This final layer acts as the frontend of the whole IoT system. The collected data and value-added information are displayed on the users' screen, allowing them to track the asset parameter they want to monitor.

Frequently Asked Questions

How many layers does IoT have?

The basic classification of the architecture of IoT consists of 4 layers, namely Sensing Layer, Data processing Layer, Network Layer, and Application Layer. The architecture can be divided further into more layers depending upon the depth of research.

What should be the design considerations in an IoT system?

The first consideration is the design of the sensors.

The next important consideration is communication.

The next step is choosing the correct middleware.

The last is the application layer, as there is a tradeoff between the features provided and the resources that are required.

What are the basic components of an IoT system?

The basic components consist of: -

  • ID: We need a unique method of object identification. 
  • Metainformation: Along with an ID, we need some metainformation about the device that describes its form and operation. 
  • Security controls: An owner of a device might place restrictions on the kinds of devices that can connect to it. 
  • Service discovery: Such kind of a system is like a service cloud, where we need to have dedicated directories that store details of devices providing certain kinds of services
  • Relationship management: This module manages relationships with other devices.
  • Service composition: The ultimate goal of having such a system is to provide better integrated services to users.

How can IoT be used in Home Automation?

Various sensors can be used in smart homes to give intelligent and automated services to the consumer. They aid in automating everyday duties and maintaining a routine for people prone to forgetfulness. They contribute to energy conservation by automatically shutting off lights and other devices. For this, we commonly employ motion sensors. Motion sensors can also be utilized for security purposes.

How can IoT be used in Health Sector?

IoT applications can be used in creating an Electronic Health Record (EHR), which is a record of all the medical details of a person. Stress recognition applications are also reasonably popular and can be measured using smartphone sensors.

Conclusion

In this article, we have extensively discussed different layers of Architecture of an IoT system and how they can be divided into deeper layers.

After reading about the Architecture of IoT, are you not feeling excited to read/explore more articles on the topic of Programming in IoT and learning Ruby? Don't worry; Coding Ninjas has you covered. To learn, see more blogs on RubyRuby Documentation, and Programming Language for IoT.

Recommended Reading: 

Spring Boot Architecture

Check out this article - Components Of IOT

Refer to our Guided Path on Coding Ninjas Studio to upskill yourself in Data Structures and AlgorithmsCompetitive ProgrammingJavaScriptSystem Design, and many more! If you want to test your competency in coding, you may check out the mock test series and participate in the contests hosted on Coding Ninjas Studio! But if you have just started your learning process and are looking for questions asked by tech giants like Amazon, Microsoft, Uber, etc; you must look at the problems, interview experiences, and interview bundle for placement preparations.

Nevertheless, you may consider our paid courses to give your career an edge over others!

Do upvote our blogs if you find them helpful and engaging!

Happy Learning!

Previous article
Concept of Smart Cities
Next article
Design Challenges in IoT
Live masterclass