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Last Updated: Jul 10, 2024
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Three-Tier Architecture in DBMS

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Prerita Agarwal
Data Specialist @
23 Jul, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

The three-tier architecture in DBMS is a software architecture, developed in the 1990s to overcome the limitations of the two-tier architecture. The new third tier (middle tier server) is between the user interface (client) and the database. This middle tier provides process management where business logic and rules are executed, and this architecture can accommodate hundreds of users at the same time

Three-Tier Schema Architecture in DBMS

Three-tier architecture in database management systems (DBMS) is a client-server architecture that divides the application components into three logical tiers: presentation tier, application tier, and data tier. Each tier is responsible for specific functionalities, which helps modularise and manage the system efficiently.

There are  variety of ways of implementing this middle tier, such as  message servers, or application servers, transaction processing monitors. The middle tier can perform application execution, queuing, and database staging. 

If the middle tier of the three-tier architecture system provides queuing, the client can make its request to the middle tier and disengage itself because the middle tier will access the data and return the response to the client. In addition, the middle layer adds scheduling and prioritization for the works in progress. 


  • A three-tier architecture includes a user system interface top tier where user services (such as text input, display management, and session dialog) reside.


  • The middle tier of this architecture provides process management services (such as process development, process monitoring, process enactment, and process resourcing) that are shared by multiple applications. 


  • The third tier provides database management functionality and is dedicated to data and file services that can be optimized without using any proprietary database management system languages.


  • The middle tier server (also referred to as the application server) improves performance, flexibility, maintainability, reusability, and scalability by centralizing process logic.
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  • It can scale without degrading the performance as no separate connection is required from the client.
  • In the three-tier architecture, security is improved as client applications don’t have direct access to the database.
  • Data integrity is improved by eliminating data corruption through validation in the middle-tier server.



  • Implementation of three-tier architecture is comparatively difficult.



1. What are the use cases of three-tier architecture?

Three-tier architecture pattern is used for complex use-cases such as for implementing reliable and fault-tolerant microservices in distributed systems.


2. What are the limitations of three-tier architecture?

Implementation details, overall architecture design complexity is high, along with high development and maintenance costs.


Key Takeaways

This article covered three-tier architecture along with its characteristics.

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Topics covered
Three-Tier Schema Architecture in DBMS
Key Takeaways