Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com. Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Naukri.com
Table of contents
1.
Introduction
2.
What is Train Test Split?
3.
Why Do We Use It?
3.1.
Syntax, Parameters, and Example
4.
Example with Numpy
4.1.
Example 1
4.2.
Example 2
5.
What Is the Train Test Split Procedure?
6.
Consequences of Not Using Train Test Split
7.
Using Train Test Split In Python
8.
4 Steps for Train Test Split Creation and Training in Scikit-Learn
9.
Advantages of Train Test Split
10.
Disadvantages of Train Test Split
11.
Frequently Asked Questions
11.1.
How does train and test split work?
11.2.
What are good test train splits?
11.3.
What is the split ratio for train test?
11.4.
What type of function is a train test split?
12.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
Easy

Train Test Split

Create a resume that lands you SDE interviews at MAANG
Speaker
Anubhav Sinha
SDE-2 @
12 Jun, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

Introduction

Train-test split validates your model by simulating its performance with new data.

This technique involves dividing a dataset into two segments: one for training the machine learning model and the other for testing its predictive prowess. 

Train Test Split

The rationale behind this split is to assess the model's performance on unseen data, ensuring that it can generalize well beyond the examples on which it was trained.

Recommended Topic: procedural programming

What is Train Test Split?

Train test split is a method used to evaluate the performance of machine learning algorithms. When developing predictive models, we split the data into a training set and a test set. The training set is used to teach the model about the underlying patterns in the data, while the test set is used to evaluate how well the model has learned to predict new, unseen data.

Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job
Bootcamp

Why Do We Use It?

The primary purpose of the train test split is to provide an honest assessment of the model's performance. Without this split, there's a risk of overfitting, where the model learns the training data too well, including noise and outliers, which do not generalize to new data. By evaluating the model on a separate test set, we can ensure that our model can make accurate predictions on data it hasn't encountered before.

Syntax, Parameters, and Example

The train test split can be easily implemented in Python using libraries such as Scikit-learn. The function train_test_split from the model_selection module is commonly used. The syntax is straightforward:

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)


Here, X and y are the features and labels of your dataset, test_size indicates the proportion of the dataset to include in the test split, and random_state ensures reproducibility.

Example with Numpy

Let's consider a simple example using NumPy to create a dataset and perform a train test split.

Example 1

Statement: We have a dataset of 100 samples, and we want to split it into 80% training data and 20% testing data.

import numpy as np
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
# Generate a dataset
np.random.seed(42)
X = np.random.rand(100, 5)
y = np.random.rand(100, 1)
# Perform the split
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)

Example 2

Statement: Now, let's split a dataset where we have 10 features and 1 label.

# Generate a dataset
X = np.random.rand(100, 10)
y = np.random.rand(100, 1)


# Perform the split
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)


Code Explanation

In both examples, np.random.rand is used to generate random samples for our features X and labels y. The train_test_split function then divides the dataset into training and testing sets. The test_size=0.2 parameter tells the function to reserve 20% of the data for testing. random_state=42 is set for reproducibility, ensuring that the split is the same each time the code is run.

What Is the Train Test Split Procedure?

The train-test split procedure is a common practice in machine learning for evaluating the performance of a predictive model. It involves splitting a dataset into two subsets: one for training the model and another for testing its performance. The primary purpose is to assess how well the model generalizes to new, unseen data.

Procedure:

1. Dataset Preparation: Begin with a labeled dataset containing input features and corresponding target labels.

2. Randomization: Shuffle the dataset randomly to ensure a representative distribution of data in both the training and testing subsets.

3. Splitting: Divide the dataset into two parts:

  • Training Set: Typically, the majority of the data (e.g., 70-80%).
  • Test Set: The remaining portion used for evaluating the model's performance (e.g., 20-30%).

4. Model Training: Train the machine learning model using the training set. The model learns patterns and relationships between features and labels during this phase.

5. Model Testing: Use the test set to evaluate the model's performance on unseen data. The model makes predictions on the test set, and the true labels are compared to assess accuracy, precision, recall, etc.

6. Performance Evaluation: Analyze the model's performance metrics on the test set to gauge its ability to generalize to new, unseen data. Common metrics include accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score, etc.

Consequences of Not Using Train Test Split

Using a train-test split is a fundamental practice in machine learning to evaluate the performance of a model on unseen data. If you choose not to use a train-test split and instead train and evaluate your model on the same dataset, several consequences may arise:

  • Overfitting: The model may perform well on the training data but fail to generalize to new, unseen data. This is known as overfitting, where the model has learned the training data too well, including its noise and outliers.
  • Optimistic Performance Estimates: Without a separate test set, you might overestimate the performance of your model. The model has already seen the data during training, so its performance on that same data is not a reliable indicator of how it will perform on new data.
  • Bias in Model Evaluation: If the dataset is not representative of the broader population, your model may learn specific patterns or characteristics of the training set that do not apply to new data. This can lead to biased model evaluation.
  • Poor Generalization: The primary goal of machine learning is to build models that generalize well to new, unseen data. Without a test set, you cannot assess the model's ability to generalize, and it may perform poorly on real-world data.
  • Lack of Model Robustness Assessment: A model's robustness is its ability to perform well across different datasets and in various scenarios. Using a train-test split helps assess how well your model generalizes and identifies its weaknesses.
  • Difficulty in Hyperparameter Tuning: Without a separate validation set (which is often split from the training data), it becomes challenging to perform proper hyperparameter tuning. You might inadvertently tune your model to perform well on the specific characteristics of the training data.

Using Train Test Split In Python

In Python, the train_test_split function from the scikit-learn library is commonly used to split a dataset into training and testing sets. Here's a simple example:

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
# Assume 'X' is your feature matrix and 'y' is your target variable
# Replace 'your_data' and 'your_target' with your actual data and target variable
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(your_data, your_target, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)
# Parameters:
# - 'your_data': Feature matrix
# - 'your_target': Target variable
# - 'test_size': The proportion of the dataset to include in the test split (e.g., 0.2 for 20% test, 0.25 for 25% test)
# - 'random_state': Seed for random number generation, ensures reproducibility
# Now you can use X_train and y_train for training your model, and X_test and y_test for evaluating its performance.

 

Here's a breakdown of the key components:

  • X_train: Training set features
  • X_test: Testing set features
  • y_train: Training set target values
  • y_test: Testing set target values
     

Ensure that the shapes of X_train, X_test, y_train, and y_test make sense for your specific application.

4 Steps for Train Test Split Creation and Training in Scikit-Learn

Here are the four main steps for creating a train-test split and training a machine learning model using scikit-learn:

Step 1: Import Necessary Libraries

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn import YourModel  # Replace YourModel with the specific model you're using
from sklearn.metrics import accuracy_score, other_metrics  # Import relevant metrics

 

Step 2: Load and Split the Data

Assuming you have your features (X) and target variable (y), you can use train_test_split to split the data into training and testing sets.

# Replace 'your_data' and 'your_target' with your actual data and target variable
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(your_data, your_target, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)

 

Step 3: Create and Train Your Model

Instantiate your machine learning model and train it using the training data.

# Replace YourModel with the specific model you're using
model = YourModel()
model.fit(X_train, y_train)

 

Step 4: Evaluate the Model

Make predictions on the test set and evaluate the model's performance using relevant metrics.

# Make predictions on the test set
y_pred = model.predict(X_test)
# Evaluate accuracy or other metrics depending on your problem
accuracy = accuracy_score(y_test, y_pred)
print(f"Accuracy: {accuracy}")
# You can use other metrics as needed for your specific problem
# For example, for regression tasks, you might use mean squared error, etc.

Advantages of Train Test Split

  • Simplicity and Speed: Easy to understand and implement; quicker due to a single split.
     
  • Less Computationally Intensive: Ideal for large datasets and complex models.
     
  • Good for Initial Evaluation: Provides a quick check of model performance.

Disadvantages of Train Test Split

  • Limited Data Utilization: Doesn't use the entire dataset for both training and testing.
     
  • Potential Bias: The results can vary significantly based on the chosen split.

Also See, difference between procedural and object oriented programming

See more, Application of frequent itemset mining 

Read About, resume for software engineer fresher

Frequently Asked Questions

How does train and test split work?

Train-test split randomly divides a dataset into training and testing sets. The model learns patterns from the training set and is evaluated on the unseen test set to assess its generalization performance.

What are good test train splits?

Common test-train splits include 70-30%, 80-20%, or 90-10%, depending on the dataset size and desired trade-off between training and testing data.

What is the split ratio for train test?

The split ratio is specified by the test_size parameter in the train-test split function, representing the proportion of data allocated to the test set.

What type of function is a train test split?

Train-test split is a function provided by scikit-learn, specifically in the sklearn.model_selection module, used to partition data for model training and evaluation.

Conclusion

The train test split is a simple yet powerful tool in the machine learning workflow. It helps in validating the model's ability to generalize and is crucial for preventing overfitting. By using this technique, practitioners can confidently assess the predictive performance of their models, ensuring that they will perform well when deployed in the real world. Remember, the goal is to create models that make accurate predictions, not just perform well on the training data.

You can refer to our guided paths on the Coding Ninjas. You can check our course to learn more about DSADBMSCompetitive ProgrammingPythonJavaJavaScript, etc. 

Also, check out some of the Guided Paths on topics such as Data Structure and AlgorithmsCompetitive ProgrammingOperating SystemsComputer Networks, DBMSSystem Design, etc., as well as some Contests, Test Series, and Interview Experiences curated by top Industry Experts.

Previous article
What is Tech Stack?
Next article
Machine Dependent Code Optimization
Live masterclass