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Table of contents
Principles of V-model
Phases of Verification
Phases of Validation
Advantages of V-model
Disadvantages of V-model
When to use V-model
Key Takeaways
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

V Model

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The numerous procedures or approaches that are picked for the project's development based on the project's aims and goals are referred to as software development models. Various development life cycle models have been created to meet different requirements. The models define the multiple steps of the process and the sequence in which they must be completed.

The chosen model has a significant influence on the testing carried out. It will decide the what, where, and when of our planned testing, affect regression testing, and determine which test approaches to employ.

We will thoroughly discuss the V-Model, its phases, and its advantages and disadvantages in the following article.

Also see, Adhoc testing


The V-model is a Software development life cycle (SDLC) paradigm in which processes are carried out in a V-shape in sequential order. It is known as the Verification and Validation model.

The V-Model is built on the association of a testing phase for each relevant development step. It is an extension of the waterfall model. Each stage of the development cycle has a testing phase intimately linked to it, which is a very rigorous methodology. The following step begins only once the previous one has been completed.

Verification is a static analysis procedure (review) performed without running the code. It's the process of evaluating the product development process to see if the requirements are met.

Validation entails the use of a dynamic analysis approach (functional or non-functional), as well as code execution for testing. Validation is the process of classifying software after it has been developed to evaluate whether it satisfies the expectations and needs of the client.


V-model paradigm


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Principles of V-model

Some of the principles of the V development model are:

  • Scalability: According to this principle, the V-Model idea can fit any IT project, regardless of its size, complexity, or length.
  • Data/Process Integrity: According to this notion, successful project design demands the integration and cohesiveness of both data and processes. At each need, process elements must be recognized.
  • Cross-referencing: The process of establishing a direct link between requirements and testing activities.
  • Documentation: Every step in the V-model is documented thoroughly. Both the development and the support team require and use the documentation. Once the program is in production, documentation is needed to maintain it.

Phases of Verification

The phases involved in the validation of the program in V-mode are:

Business requirement analysis: It is the initial stage in understanding product needs from the customer's perspective. This phase entails extensive communication to comprehend the customer's expectations and objectives fully.

System Design/ Tech Requirement: System engineers assess and understand the proposed system's business using the user requirements document as a guide.

Architecture Design: The foundation in determining the architecture is that it should comprehend everything, which generally includes a list of modules, a brief description of each module's operation, their interface linkages, dependencies, database tables, architectural diagrams, technical details, and so on. The integration testing model is implemented at a particular stage.

Module Designing: The system is broken down into individual modules during the module design process. Low-Level design is when the specific format of the modules is specified.

Implementation: The coding step begins on the completion of the design phase. An appropriate programming language is chosen based on the needs. There are certain coding principles and standards. The final build is optimized for improved performance before being checked into the repository, and the code is subjected to several code reviews to ensure its quality.

Also read,  V Model in Software Engineering and Introduction to Software Engineering.

Phases of Validation

There are four phases involved in the validation of the program in the V-model:

Unit TestingUnit Test Plans (UTPs) are developed during the module design in the V-Model. These UTPs are used to detect and resolve issues in code or units. A unit is a minor thing that may exist on its own, such as a program module. Unit testing confirms that the smallest object can appropriately perform when separated from the rest of the codes/units.

Integration Testing: During the architectural design phase, integration test plans are created. These experiments confirm that groups established and tested independently may cohabit and interact.

System Testing: During the system design phase, plans for system tests are created. Unlike Unit and Integration Test Plans, System Test Plans are built by the client's business team. System testing guarantees that an application developer's expectations are satisfied.

Acceptance Testing: Acceptance testing is linked to the section of the business requirement analysis. It entails putting the software product through its paces in a real-world setting. Acceptance testing highlights compatibility issues with the many systems present in the user environment.

Also read: Software Testing

Advantages of V-model

V-model has the following advantages: 

  • Phases are carried out one at a time in this highly disciplined methodology.
  • For smaller projects with well-defined needs, this method works effectively.
  • Simple and straightforward to comprehend and apply.
  • Because of the model's rigidity, it's simple to manage. There are specified deliverables and a review mechanism for each step.

Disadvantages of V-model

Some of the disadvantages of the V-model are:

  • Uncertainty and high risk.
  • For sophisticated and object-oriented applications, this is not an appropriate paradigm.
  • For long-term projects, this paradigm is inadequate.
  • It is unsuitable for projects with a moderate to high risk of change in requirements.
  • It's tough to update functionality in an application once it's in the testing stage.
  • Until the end of the life cycle, functioning software has no development.

When to use V-model

V-model is best suited where:

  • The criteria are well-defined and set in stone.
  • Many technical resources and knowledge are available.
  • The definition of the product is consistent.
  • The project team understands that technology is not dynamic.
  • There are no prerequisites that are unclear or imprecise.
  • The project isn't long.

Must read, human computer interaction

Also Read, prototype model in software engineering


  1. What kind of tests are included in the V-model?
    According to the V-Model, a tester must check that the criteria of a particular development phase are satisfied. In addition, the tester must ensure that the system fulfills the user's, customer's, or other stakeholders' needs. In practice, verifications and validations are included in tests.
  2. What is the difference between the fish model and the v-Model?
    The opposite team checks every stage in the Fish model for completeness and accuracy. The same person evaluates each step in the V model, and other testers will do software testing in the final stage.
  3. What is the difference between Validation and Verification?
    Validation is the process of ensuring that the specification accurately reflects the client's needs, whereas verification is the process of ensuring that the program satisfies the requirements. All actions connected with generating high-quality software are included in verification.
  4. What is the major drawback of using a V- model?
    The V Model's main shortcoming is its rigidity and lack of flexibility. On any modifications in the middle of the project, developers must update the test papers and the required documents.
  5. Is the V-Model similar to the Waterfall Model?
    The V-shaped paradigm, also known as the Verification and Validation model, evolved from Waterfall and is defined by a testing phase for each development step. Each stage, like Waterfall, begins only after the preceding one has concluded.

Key Takeaways

This article extensively discussed the V-Model used in the software development life cycle and its advantages and disadvantages. 

We hope this blog has helped you enhance your knowledge of the V-Model and other software development processes. For learning more about software project management or other models like Waterfall ModelBig Bang Model, and Iterative Model, check out Code Studio's blog site.

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