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Table of contents
1.
Characteristics of Object
2.
Object-based languages
3.
Benefits of Using Objects in Programming
3.1.
1. Encapsulation
3.2.
2. Reusability
3.3.
3. Modularity
3.4.
4. Polymorphism
3.5.
5. Code organization
4.
Examples of Objects
4.1.
Creating Objects
4.2.
Creating Objects Just After Class
5.
Implementation in Java
6.
How is Object different from Class?
7.
Frequently Asked Questions
7.1.
What is the main purpose of using OOPs concepts?
7.2.
Why do we need objects in OOPs?
7.3.
Is it always necessary to create objects from class?
7.4.
What is used to create an object?
8.
Conclusion
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024
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What is an Object in OOPS(Object Oriented Programming)

Author Nidhi Kumari
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Anubhav Sinha
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25 Jun, 2024 @ 01:30 PM

A data field with unique characteristics and behaviors is called an object. An object can be considered a real-life entity having a state and behaviour. An object is an instance of a class, and you can create many objects of the same class.
If you’re new to the field of coding, the toughest part of learning it is figuring out where to begin. You can give a thumbs up to OOPs. It is one of the popular paradigms that are used in real-life coding problems. 

Alan Kay invented the term "object-oriented programming" in 1966 or 1967SIMULA is known as the first object-oriented programming language. 

In this article, you will understand what is an object in OOPs and some examples of Objects. So, without any further ado, let’s start.

What is an object in oops

Also see, Duck Number in Java and Hashcode Method in Java.

An object is the basic building block of OOPs. OOP prioritizes objects that the developer wants to manipulate over the logic needed to manipulate them. This approach is suitable for large and complicated programming. 

Confused? Well, Don’t be confused. See the below examples of real-world entities.

Laptop

Seeing this image, you will say, “This is a laptop”. Right?

What about this?

Pen

You’ll say it’s a Pen.

Actually, the first image is not a laptop and the second image is not of a pen. Then what is that? 

Well, the first image is a type of laptop and the second one is a type of pen

Type of Laptop

According to OOPS, a class is a blueprint used to generate a collection of homogenous products, referred to as objects.

Consider you are using a laptop of company XYZ, that is an object of Laptop Class. 

There are two things that all real-world objects have in common: state and behaviour. 

Laptops have states (name, colour, processors) and behaviour (ON, OFF, Audio, Video).

A great way to start thinking about object-oriented programming is to identify the state and behaviour of real-world objects.

Objects in OOPs are conceptually identical to real-world objects. From a Technical point of view, An entity with a clearly defined structure and behaviour is called an object. An object in OOPs can include:

  • A Variable.
     
  • A Data Structure.
     
  • A Function or
     
  • A method.
     

When an object is instantiated, heap memory is allocated at runtime.

Read the topic about-  Iteration Statements in Java.

Characteristics of Object

We have covered what is an object in OOPs. Now, let’s discuss some characteristics of objects in OOPs.

  1. State: The current values of each attribute continue to make up an object's state.
    It can be of two types: Static and Dynamic.
     
  2. Behaviour: Behaviour describes how an object behaves and responds regarding state transitions.
     
  3. Identity: An object's identity is a quality that makes it distinct from all other objects.
     
  4. Responsibility: It is the function of an object that it performs within the system.
     

Let’s consider an example of a Student object.

Characteristics of Object
  • State: Name, Age, Gender, Address.
     
  • Behavior: Reading, Writing, Running.
     
  • Identity: ID, Registration Number.
     
  • Responsibility: To study and get good marks.

Object-based languages

Object-based programming languages are programming languages that support object-oriented programming concepts to some extent but differ from fully object-oriented languages in that they lack certain features, such as inheritance. 

In object-based languages, objects are created from classes, just like in object-oriented languages. Objects have properties represented by variables and methods, which are functions that can be called on the object. However, object-based languages do not support the concept of inheritance, a key feature of object-oriented languages. 

Object-based languages are often used for creating simple programs or scripting tasks, where the full power of an object-oriented language is not necessary. Examples of object-based languages include JavaScript and Visual Basic.

While object-based languages may lack some of the features of fully object-oriented languages, they can still be powerful and useful tools for certain programming tasks.

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Benefits of Using Objects in Programming

Listed below are some of the benefits of using objects in programming.

1. Encapsulation

One of the key benefits of using objects is encapsulation. Encapsulation refers to the practice of hiding the implementation details of an object from the outside world. This means that the internal workings of an object are hidden from other parts of the program, which can help to reduce complexity and make the code easier to understand. Encapsulation also allows for better control over the object's behavior, as its internal state can only be modified through its methods.

2. Reusability

Another benefit of using objects is reusability. Objects can be created once and then reused in multiple parts of the program. This can help to reduce code duplication and make the program more efficient. Additionally, objects can be inherited from other objects, which can further increase reusability and reduce development time.

3. Modularity

Objects can also help to improve the modularity of a program. Modularity refers to breaking a program down into smaller, more manageable parts. Objects can represent these smaller parts, each representing a specific aspect of the program's functionality. This can make it easier to develop and maintain the program, as changes to one object will not affect other objects in the program.

4. Polymorphism

Polymorphism is another benefit of using objects. Polymorphism refers to the ability of objects to take on different forms. This means that objects can be used in various contexts without modifying the object itself. For example, a "vehicle" object could represent a car, a truck, or a motorcycle, depending on the context in which it is used.

5. Code organization

Finally, objects can help to improve the organization of code. By grouping related data and behavior into objects, the code becomes easier to understand and maintain. Objects can also be organized into hierarchies, each inheriting from a parent object. This can help to organize the code further and make it easier to navigate.

Examples of Objects

After understanding What is an object in OOPs, It’s time to see some examples of objects.

Creating Objects

class Laptop
{
    char name[20];
    int model_number;

public:
    void getdetails();
    void display();
};

 

Creating a laptop object using the above-mentioned laptop class.

class Computer {
   public static void main(String []args) {
      Laptop laptop1 = new Laptop(); // object1
      Laptop laptop2 = new Laptop();  // object2


   }
}
Creating Objects

Creating Objects Just After Class

When a class is defined, objects can be constructed by placing their names just after the closing brace. For example,

class Laptop
{
    char name[20];
    int model_number;


public:
    void getdetails();
    void display();
} laptop1, laptop2;
Creating Objects just after Class

Implementation in Java

You have understood what is an object in OOPs. Now, it’s time to understand the implementation of Objects and Classes using Java.

//Laptop Class
class Laptop {
    //Declaring private instance variable or fields
    private String name;
    private int id;
    private double model;


    //Defining Parameterized Constructor
    public Laptop(String name, int id, double model) {

        this.name = name;
        this.id = id;
        this.model = model;
    }

    //Defining Non-Parameterized Constructor
    public Laptop() {

    }

    //getter and setter methods
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }
    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }
    public double getmodel() {
        return model;
    }
    public void setmodel(double model) {
        this.model = model;
    }

    //Generating the toString() method
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "Laptop [name=" + name + ", id=" + id + ", model=" + model + "]";
    }

    //Adding user-defined method-> display_model()
    public void display_model() {
        System.out.println(name + " The Current Model is :: " + model);
    }


}


public class Main {


    public static void main(String[] args) {
        //Instantiate Objects Of class Laptop
        Laptop ABC = new Laptop("ABC", 2211, 10);
        Laptop XYZ = new Laptop("XYZ", 1001, 9);

        // Access the Attributes And the Methods Of Class Laptop

        // For Laptop ABC ::
        System.out.println(ABC.toString()); //Accessing the toString Method
        ABC.display_model();
        ABC.setmodel(11);


        System.out.println("The updated model of the laptop ABC:: " + ABC.getmodel());
        System.out.println("----------------------------------------------------------");

        //For Laptop XYZ ::
        System.out.println(XYZ.toString()); //Accessing the toString Method
        XYZ.display_model();
        ABC.setmodel(9);

        System.out.println("The updated model of the laptop XYZ:: " + XYZ.getmodel());
        System.out.println("----------------------------------------------------------");


    }


}

Output

Implementation in Java

How is Object different from Class?

  • An object is a data field with unique states and behavior.
  • A class serves as a blueprint for creating objects.

In this section, we will discuss the difference between Object and class.

Object Vs class
Difference Table

You can also read about the Multiple Inheritance in Java.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the main purpose of using OOPs concepts?

OOP concepts assist the programmer in managing and accessing data and enhance the readability and reuse of code. The four pillars of OOPs or four basic principles of OOPs are abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.

Why do we need objects in OOPs?

Objects are a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming and allow for encapsulation, reusability, modularity, polymorphism, and code organization. By using objects, developers can create more efficient, maintainable, and scalable code that is easier to understand and adapt to changing requirements.

Is it always necessary to create objects from class?

No, it is not always necessary to create objects from a class. However, in object-oriented programming, objects are typically created from classes, as classes define the properties and behaviors of the objects, and only creating an object makes it possible to access the attributes and functions of the class.

What is used to create an object?

In object-oriented programming, objects are created from classes. To create an object, first, a class is defined with the desired properties and behaviors. Then, an instance of the class is created using the "new" keyword, which allocates memory for the object and initializes its properties. The resulting object can then perform various tasks within the program.

Conclusion

In this article, we have extensively discussed what is Object in OOPs, examples of objects, and differences between Objects and Classes. One of the key differences is that every time an object is created, memory is allocated, but it is not in the case of Classes.

We hope this blog has helped you. We recommend you visit our articles on different topics of OOPs, such as

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