Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X Code360 powered by Coding Ninjas X
Table of contents
What is a Batch Operating System?
What are the benefits of the Batch Operating System?
Types of Batch Operating System
Simple Batched System
Multi-programmed batched system
Role of Batch OS
Characteristics of Batch Operating System
Advantages of Batch Operating System
Disadvantages of Batch Operating System
Frequently Asked Questions
What is batch operating system with example?
Who uses a batch operating system?
How does a batch operating system work?
What is the importance of batch operating system?
What is batch mode operating system?
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024

Batch Operating System

Author Sanjana Yadav
0 upvote
Create a resume that lands you SDE interviews at MAANG
Anubhav Sinha
SDE-2 @
12 Jun, 2024 @ 01:30 PM
Batch Operating System


An operating system known as a batch operating system enables simultaneous use by numerous users without requiring their direct interaction. To accomplish this, users submit their jobs to the operating system, which processes them one at a time. We will discuss everything about batch operating systems in detail in this article. 

In the 1950s and 1960s, there were no developed operating systems, complicated computer architecture, or supplementary memory devices. Instead, data were processed using enormous mainframe computers using punch cards or magnetic tapes as input and output. At the time, the main issue was a scarcity of hard drives.

Let’s learn what is a batch operating system exactly and what makes it unique.

What is a Batch Operating System?

Batch processing systems were designed to alleviate the disadvantages of early systems. The early systems took longer to set up.

To address this disadvantage, batch processing is employed, in which additional setup time is saved by processing jobs in batches. In this method, comparable jobs are given to the CPU for processing and execution simultaneously.

The batch processing system's primary goal is to save setup time by automatically running jobs in batches.

When memory in the main memory becomes available, a job from the work queue is picked and loaded into memory.

Jobs that perform similar duties were grouped in the batch operating system. These work groupings are processed as a batch and run simultaneously. The following batch processing actions are performed by a computer system running this operating system:

A job is a single unit consisting of a predetermined collection of commands, data, and programs.

Processing is done in the order that they are received, thus first come, first served.

These jobs are saved in memory and run without any manual input.

The operating system releases memory once a job is completed successfully.

Get the tech career you deserve, faster!
Connect with our expert counsellors to understand how to hack your way to success
User rating 4.7/5
1:1 doubt support
95% placement record
Akash Pal
Senior Software Engineer
326% Hike After Job Bootcamp
Himanshu Gusain
Programmer Analyst
32 LPA After Job Bootcamp
After Job

What are the benefits of the Batch Operating System?

We have already discussed the basics of batch operating systems. Now we will see the major benefits of the batch operating system. Batch operating systems require little human interaction and are less taxing on the CPU. And also enable you to do significant, repetitive activities without interacting with the computer to instruct it what to do next. Interactive batch operating systems are also available now. For instance, if you plan a task, the computer will alert the processor when it is finished at the specified time. To input data in batch systems, you don't require specialized hardware or system support. Large businesses profit the most from it, but smaller firms can also use it. Batch systems can operate independently, which relieves processing load. One of the most important benefits includes the batch system has relatively little downtime.

Types of Batch Operating System

We just covered what is batch operating system. Now let’s dive into types of batch operating systems.

Batch operating systems are divided into two categories. The following are some examples:

Simple Batched System

In a primitive batch operating system, the user did not interface directly with the computer system for task execution. On the other hand, the user had to create a task that comprised the program, control information, and data about the project's nature on control cards. Subsequently, the work was handed off to the computer operator, who usually used a punch card. In the case of a program error, the program's output comprises results, registers, and memory dumps. The output appeared after a period, which may range from days to hours to minutes.

Its primary function was to move control from one job to another. To boost processing performance, jobs with similar criteria were grouped and processed via the processor. The application utilized the operators to build batches with comparable requirements. When the batches become available, the computer executes them one by one. Typically, this system reads a series of jobs, each with control cads and preset job activities.

Multi-programmed batched system

Spooling is used to manage many tasks that have previously been read and are waiting to be executed on disc. The operating system can pick which task to perform next from a pool of jobs on a disc to maximize CPU usage. Jobs sent on magnetic tape or cards cannot be run in any other sequence. Because jobs are completed in a first-come, first-served manner, they run sequentially. Job scheduling becomes possible when several jobs are stored on a direct access device, similar to a disc. Multi-programming is a crucial aspect of the work schedule. Spooling and offline operations have limits when dealing with overlapping I/O. In most cases, a single person could not keep track of all the input/output devices and CPU purchases.

To enhance CPU usage, jobs are grouped in the multi-programmed batched system so that the CPU only executes one job at a time. At any given time, the operating system keeps many jobs in memory. The operating system chooses one job, and it is started in memory. Finally, a task, such as mounting a tape on an I/O activity, must be completed before the process may proceed. Do not sit idle in a multiprogramming system since the operating system will transition to another job. The CPU is returned when a task is in the wait state, and the current job is done.

Role of Batch OS

A batch operating system's primary function is to perform jobs in batches automatically. The 'Batch Monitor,' which is positioned at the bottom end of the main memory, performs the principal role of a batch processing system. The emergence of hard disc drives and card readers enabled this technology. The jobs may now be saved to a disc and used in a batch execution pool. Following that, they are put together in batches with similar tasks. As a result, the batch operating system conducted the batched jobs, saving time by just completing operations once. It was the outcome of a more efficient system with shorter turnaround times.

Characteristics of Batch Operating System

The Batch Operating System has several characteristics. Some of them are: 

  • In this case, the CPU performs the jobs in the order the operator sends them to it, implying that the task provided to the CPU first would be done first. 'First come, first serve' is another name for it.
  • The term "task" refers to the command or instruction that the user and the software are expected to follow.
  • A batch operating system executes a series of user-supplied instructions made up of numerous different instructions and programs.
  • When a task is completed successfully, the operating system releases the memory allocated to it.
  • The user does not interact directly with the operating system in a batch operating system; instead, all instructions are transmitted to the operator.
  • The operator assesses the user's instructions and generates a collection of comparable instructions.

Advantages of Batch Operating System

The Batch Operating System has several advantages. 

  • It's difficult to predict how long a project will take to complete; only batch system processors know how long it will take to complete the job promptly.
  • This system is capable of doing huge workloads repeatedly.
  • The batch process might be separated into many parts to boost processing speed.
  • When a process is complete, the following task from the job spool is executed without user intervention.
  • The use of the CPU improves.

Disadvantages of Batch Operating System

The Batch Operating System has a number of drawbacks. Here are a few examples:

  • When a task fails for the first time, it must be scheduled for completion, which might take a long time.
  • Batch systems must be fully understood by computer operators.
  • Debugging the batch system is tricky.
  • There is no direct connection between the computer system and the user.
  • Other tasks must wait for an undetermined amount of time if a job enters an endless loop.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is batch operating system with example?

A batch-based operating system enables the efficient completion of all tasks. Payroll systems, bank statements, and so forth are examples. Each user gets the same amount of CPU time because they share a single machine. Multitasking systems are frequently referred to as multitaskers.

Who uses a batch operating system?

One of the most used operating systems is batch. A batch operating system's users do not interface directly with the machine. Each user prepares their task on an off-line device such as punch cards before submitting it to the computer operator.

How does a batch operating system work?

By using a batch operating system, users submit their jobs for the system to process one at a time. Jobs with similar criteria are combined and carried out collectively to expedite processing. Batch OS users don't interact with the computer directly.

What is the importance of batch operating system?

Batch operating systems require less human interaction and are less taxing on the CPU. Also, batch operating systems let you execute significant, repetitive activities without having to interact with the computer to instruct it on what to do next.

What is batch mode operating system?

An operating system that allows several concurrent users is known as a batch operating system (BOS). It is an open-source operating system made to handle numerous jobs running in succession. No direct communication between users is permitted.


In this article, we have extensively discussed what the batch operating system is. we also discussed the major benefits of the batch operating system and its types. Then we discussed the batch operating system's roles, features, advantages, and disadvantages.


Recommended Readings: 

Do upvote our blogs if you find them helpful and engaging!

Happy Learning!

Previous article
Device Management in Operating System
Next article
Distributed Operating System
Live masterclass