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Table of contents
What is XMPP?
Features of XMPP
Why use XMPP in IoT?
Architecture of XMPP
Benefits of XMPP
Frequently Asked Questions
Mention XMPP's lifecycle.
Write some XMPP functions.
Is the XMPP server free?
Is XMPP based on sockets?
Last Updated: Mar 27, 2024


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We use XMPP as a blueprint for worldwide applications. An XMPP application can be written for Android and iOS using the same protocols. Imagine that you have a chat application on your Android mobile and another chat application on your Windows computer. Both of these apps need to speak the same languages to exchange data, and that's what XMPP is, a blueprint for exchanging messages between systems. 

What is XMPP?

The XMPP protocol stands for Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol. It was initially called Jabber and was used for instant messaging in the late 1990s. XML is also used for various applications other than instant messaging, such as multi-party chat, voice & video calls, collaboration, and general data routing. Machines can send and receive messages via XMPP-IoT, a version of the protocol. Group chat, gaming, geolocation, and Voice over IP (VoIP) are just some of the many XMPP applications.

XMPP connects server and client using the same TCP Listener, distinguishing the two types of connections not based on the port number the remote side connects to but based on the XML data exchanged.

In addition to publishing and subscribing services, XMPP has also been used for embedded Internet-of-Things networks and file transfer. An XMPP service can be implemented by anyone and can operate with other implementations as XMPP is defined as an open standard that uses an open systems approach.

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Features of XMPP

Security: Besides offering channel encryption and authentication, it is also malware-resistant.

Decentralized: With a decentralized client-server architecture, unlimited servers are available.

Extensible: Its XML-based user interface can be used for a wide range of applications.

Community: A vast community of end-users, technologies, and service providers contributes to the organization's success.

Why use XMPP in IoT?

  • In the IoT, XMPP is an ideal protocol. Devices, services, and applications can be built solidly, securely, and interoperably using XMPP in the Internet of Things. We get an Internet of Things (IoT) when we link Things with the Internet that humans do not operate.
  • The following implications occur as a direct result of this definition:
  • Communication protocols, and specifically how to connect or bind to a computer network, are discussed in connection. It provides various options, including socket connections, BOSH (Bidirectional Streams Over Synchronous) HTTP, and EXI (Effective XML Interchange).
  • Asynchronous Messaging, Request-Response, and Publish/Subscribe are just a few examples of communication patterns that XMPP supports.
  • Sensors, actuators, controllers, and other types of devices can be connected in various ways. Humans do not operate provisioning, delegating trust, making decisions on automated systems, and finding things out.
  • Scalability is associated with the Internet, including federation and global identification topics. Security-related topics such as identity, authentication, authorization, and encryption, including end-to-end encryption, are also closely related to the Internet. Internet interoperability is another factor to consider.

Architecture of XMPP

Implementation stack for XMPP:

  • The first layer is the protocol blueprint, such as RFCs and XEPs. These protocols are then implemented in libraries across different platforms.
  • These comprise the second layer, which consists of Windows, iOS, and Linux platforms. Users build applications for these platforms using libraries that developers build.
  • The final layer is the end-user.

The architecture of XMPP:

The diagram below shows middle and client machine servers, such as desktop computers and smartphones. Client devices connect to the server, which relays messages on behalf of the client machines.

The XMPP protocol implements a decentralized client-server architecture. Developers can focus on user experience in a client-server architecture, while servers can focus on scalability and reliability. Compared to peer-to-peer technologies, this model is much easier to manage for organizations. Due to the lack of a single point of failure, it is a high-availability system. The servers can implement critical security protocols, such as channel encryption, user authentication, and anti-tampering.

An XMPP address is required since XMPP communications happen on a network. Jabber IDs (JIDs) are the addresses associated with XMPP. The underlying addressing structure is delivered by the Domain Name System (DNS) rather than using raw Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. A full qualified domain name (FQDN) is included in every Jabber ID. For ASCII characters, the domain section of a JID is case-insensitive.

XMPP service accounts are created using Jabber IDs to establish a virtual identity on the network. Automatic assignment of Jabber ID could occur. They resemble email addresses. A deployment policy may specify it as the same as an email address.

Each time a client connects to an XMPP server, the server or user will assign a unique resource identifier. Based on this resource, traffic can be routed to the connected client. Other connections that are open simultaneously have no impact on this connection. Resources are added at the end of the user account address and allow a particular device associated with a specific account to be queried or exchanged. A resource may be a string containing information such as the computer's name, the address, and the client software. The case is essential when it comes to identifying resources.

Also see, Instruction Format in Computer Architecture

Benefits of XMPP

Open: The source code is simple and free.

Standard: The IETF defines a core set of XML streaming protocols (Internet Engineering Task Force).

Proven: Today, the Internet is flooded with XMPP servers.

Decentralized: As XMPP is similar to email, anybody can set up their XMPP server.

Secure: Secure end-to-end communications using SAAL and TLS.

Extensible: Anyone can construct customized functionality atop the core conventions using the power of XML.

Flexible: The range of XMPP applications goes beyond instant messaging to include system administration, content distribution, and coordinated efforts.

Diverse: It is a versatile application and administration framework that is utilized by a large number of organizations and open-source ventures.

Frequently Asked Questions

Mention XMPP's lifecycle.

  • Connection: A connection between the server and client must be established before streams can be found.
  • Creating streams: To exchange elements, both streams must be opened after connection establishment.
  • Authentication: Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) is used for client authentication in XMPP.
  • Disconnection: A stream is terminated when users log out of their client.

Write some XMPP functions.

Most of the tasks we have come to rely on in an instant messaging are handled by XMPP and XML. They include:

  • Users can send and receive direct messages
  • Communication of status information about users
  • Manage contacts and subscribe to other users. For example, add friends/connections to chat with.
  • Individual users can be blocked.

Is the XMPP server free?

XMPP is an open and free messaging and chat service.

Is XMPP based on sockets?

An XMPP message is an XML fragment, a stanza, containing presence information and messaging. Although, XMPP still relies on a transport protocol to send these stanzas, such as TCP/IP, HTTP/S, or WebSocket.


This blog shows XMPP's features, benefits, and architecture.

We hope that this blog has helped you enhance your knowledge about XMPP and if you would like to learn more, check out our articles on the link. Do upvote our blog to help other ninjas grow. 

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