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Last Updated: 22 Nov, 2020

Easy

```
The first line of input contains an integer ‘T’ representing the number of test cases. Then the test cases follow.
The first line of each test case contains elements of the first tree in the level order form. The line consists of values of nodes separated by a single space. In case a node is null, we take -1 in its place.
The second line of each test case contains elements of the second tree in the level order form. The line consists of values of nodes separated by a single space. In case a node is null, we take -1 in its place.
For example, the input for the tree depicted in the below image would be:
```

```
1
2 3
4 -1 5 6
-1 7 -1 -1 -1 -1
-1 -1
```

```
Level 1:
The root node of the tree is 1
Level 2:
Left child of 1 = 2
Right child of 1 = 3
Level 3:
Left child of 2 = 4
Right child of 2 = null (-1)
Left child of 3 = 5
Right child of 3 = 6
Level 4:
Left child of 4 = null (-1)
Right child of 4 = 7
Left child of 5 = null (-1)
Right child of 5 = null (-1)
Left child of 6 = null (-1)
Right child of 6 = null (-1)
Level 5:
Left child of 7 = null (-1)
Right child of 7 = null (-1)
The first not-null node(of the previous level) is treated as the parent of the first two nodes of the current level. The second not-null node (of the previous level) is treated as the parent node for the next two nodes of the current level and so on.
The input ends when all nodes at the last level are null(-1).
```

```
The above format was just to provide clarity on how the input is formed for a given tree.
The sequence will be put together in a single line separated by a single space. Hence, for the above-depicted tree, the input will be given as:
1 2 3 4 -1 5 6 -1 7 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
```

```
For each test case, the only line of output prints true if tree S is a subtree of the tree T else prints false.
The output for each test case is in a separate line.
```

```
You do not need to print anything; it has already been taken care of.
```

```
1 <= T <= 100
1 <= N, M <= 1000
0 <= data <= 10^6 and data != -1
Where ‘T’ is the number of test cases, ‘N’ and ‘M’ are the number of nodes in the given binary trees’, and “data” is the value of the binary tree node.
Time Limit: 1 sec.
```

Traverse the tree T in preorder fashion and treat every node of the given tree T as the root, treat it as a subtree and compare the corresponding subtree with the given subtree S for equality. For checking the equality, we can compare all the nodes of the two subtrees.

So the basic idea is to traverse over the given tree T and treat every node as the root of the subtree currently being considered and compare the corresponding subtree with the given subtree S for equality. To check the equality of the two subtrees, we make use of **areIdentical(t,s) **function, which takes t and s, which are roots of the two subtrees to be compared as the inputs and returns “true” or “false” depending on whether the two are equal or not. It compares all the nodes of the two subtrees for equality. Firstly, it checks the roots of the two trees for equality and then calls itself recursively for the left subtree and the right subtree.

We know that inorder and preorder/postorder identify a tree uniquely. The idea is to store inorder and postorder traversal of both trees in separate arrays. Then, for a given binary tree S to be a subset of another binary tree T, the inorder traversal of S should be a subset of inorder traversal of T. Similarly, the post-order traversal of S should be a subset of post-order traversal of T. We can also perform pre-order traversal instead of post-order traversal. For example, consider the below trees:

Inorder(T) = {4, 2, 5, 1, 6, 3, 7}

Inorder(S) = {6, 3, 7}

Postorder(T) = {4, 5, 2, 6, 7, 3, 1}

Postorder(S) = {6, 7, 3}

Since inorder(S) is a subset of inorder(T) and postorder(S) is a subset of postorder(T), we can say that S is a subtree of T.

To check whether the inorder(S)/postorder(S) is a subset of inorder(T)/postorder(T) or not, we will use the naive algorithm, i.e., store the inorder and postorder traversal of both the trees in string. Then, use String.contains() function to check if the inorder/postorder of tree ‘S’ is substring of inorder/postorder of tree ‘T’ or not.

We know that inorder and preorder/postorder identify a tree uniquely. The idea is to store inorder and postorder traversal of both trees in separate arrays. Then, for a given binary tree S to be a subset of another binary tree T, the inorder traversal of S should be a subset of inorder traversal of T. Similarly, the post-order traversal of S should be a subset of the post-order traversal of T. We can also perform pre-order traversal instead of post-order traversal. For example, consider the below trees:

Inorder(T) = {4, 2, 5, 1, 6, 3, 7}

Inorder(S) = {6, 3, 7}

Postorder(T) = {4, 5, 2, 6, 7, 3, 1}

Postorder(S) = {6, 7, 3}

Since inorder(S) is a subset of inorder(T) and postorder(S) is a subset of postorder(T), we can say that S is a subtree of T.

To check whether the inorder(S)/postorder(S) is a subset of inorder(T)/postorder(T) or not, we will use the KMP algorithm, which is a pattern searching algorithm that uses degenerating property (pattern having same sub-patterns appearing more than once in the pattern) of the pattern and improves the worst-case complexity to O(n). The basic idea behind KMP’s algorithm is, whenever we detect a mismatch (after some matches), we already know some of the characters in the text of the next window. We take advantage of this information to avoid matching the character that we know will anyway match.

Preprocessing Overview:

- KMP algorithm preprocesses pat[] and constructs an auxiliary lps[] of size m (same as the size of pattern), which is used to skip characters while matching.
- Name “lps” indicates the longest proper prefix, which also suffix. A proper prefix is a prefix with the whole string not allowed. For example, prefixes of “ABC” are “”, “A”, “AB”, and “ABC”. Proper prefixes are “”, “A”, and “AB”. Suffixes of the string are “”, “C”, “BC”, and “ABC”.
- We search for lps in sub-patterns. More clearly, we focus on sub-strings of patterns that are either prefix and suffix.
- For each sub-pattern pat[0..i] where i = 0 to m - 1, lps[i] stores length of the maximum matching proper prefix which is also a suffix of the sub-pattern pat[0..i]. For example, for the pattern “AAABAAA”, lps[] is [0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2, 3].

Searching Algorithm:

Unlike naive algorithm, where we slide the pattern by one and compare all characters at each shift, we use a value from lps[] to decide the next characters to be matched. The idea is not to match a character that we know will anyway match.

How to use lps[] to decide the next positions (or to know the number of characters to be skipped)?

- We start the comparison of pat[j] with j = 0 with characters of the current window of text.
- We keep matching characters txt[i] and pat[j] and keep incrementing i and j while pat[j] and txt[i] keep matching.
- When we see a mismatch
- We know that characters pat[0..j-1] match with txt[i-j...i-1] (Note that j starts with 0 and increments it only when there is a match).
- We also know that lps[j - 1] is the count of characters of pat[0...j-1] that are both proper prefix and suffix.
- From the above two points, we can conclude that we do not need to match these lps[j - 1] characters with txt[i-j...i-1] because we know that these characters will anyway match.

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